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Keyword:  Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
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Adorno, T. W., & Horkheimer, M. (2005). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Retrieved August 28, 2019, from https://www.marxists.or ... 44/culture-industry.htm  
Added by: sirfragalot 08/29/2019 03:09:06 PM
      "The blindness and dumbness of the data to which positivism reduces the world pass over into language itself"
      "Real life is becoming indistinguishable from the movies. The sound film, far surpassing the theatre of illusion, leaves no room for imagination or reflection on the part of the audience, who is unable to respond within the structure of the film, yet deviate from its precise detail without losing the thread of the story; hence the film forces its victims to equate it directly with reality."
Byrne, R. M. J. (2007). The rational imagination: How people create alternatives to reality. Cambridge: The MIT Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 08/27/2011 04:49:23 AM
      The similarities in imaginative scenarios suggest "that there are "joints" in reality, junctures that attract everyone's attention."
      "people tend to change unusual events to make them more normal."
      People attempt to mold what is presented to them to their experience and knowledge of reality. The best fit -- fragments of reality in virtual worlds are assembled, like a memory, into a representation of [that person's] reality as best it can be. Commonality of assembly and representation are explained by common experiences in reality (cf counterfactual similarities) and minor differences come about through each person's unique backstory.
Campbell, D. T. (1974). Evolutionary epistemology. In P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), The Philosophy of Karl Popper Vol. XIV Book 1, (pp. 413–463). La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11/15/2018 01:15:11 PM
      "Perceived solidity is not illusory for its ordinary uses: what it diagnoses is one of the "surfaces" modern physics also describes. But when reified as exclusive, when creating expectations of opaqueness and impermeability to all types of probes, it becomes illusory."
      "Biological theories of evolution [...] are profoundly committed to an organism-environment dualism, which when extended into the evolution of sense organ, perceptual and learning functions, becomes a dualism of an organism's knowledge of the environment versus the environment itself."
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 06/07/2021 08:48:33 AM
      "Of two war reports that come back from a very real war, the one in which the image is shaky and rough, with uneven focus and other "mistakes," will seem more true than the one with impeccable framing, perfect visibility, and imperceptible grain. In much the same way for sound, the impression of realism is often tied to a feeling of discomfort, of an uneven signal, of interference and microphone noise, etc."
Crawford, C. (1997). The art of computer game design. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from ... ame-book/Coverpage.html  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01/29/2008 11:26:59 AM
      "...a game is a closed formal system that subjectively represents a subset of reality."
Damasio, A. (2006). Descartes' error Revised ed. London: Vintage.  
Added by: sirfragalot 05/11/2012 09:04:40 AM
      "We do not know, and it is improbable that we will ever know, what "absolute" reality is like."
      Re superposition of body image with "something else's" image, cf superposition of presence hypothesis (Brenton, Gillies, Ballin, & Chatting 2005). Gestalt and virtuality <---> reality.
Dick, P. K. (1978). How to build a universe that doesn't fall apart two days later. Retrieved January 6, 2008, from  
Added by: sirfragalot 01/06/2008 08:25:08 AM
      "Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away."
Doane, M. A. (1980). Ideology and the practice of sound editing and mixing. In T. de Lauretis & S. Heath (Eds), The Cinematic Apparatus (pp. 47–56). London: Macmillan.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 02/24/2006 09:11:15 AM
      "The ineffable, intangible quality of sound requires that it be placed on the side of the emotional or the intuitive. If the ideology of the visible demands that the spectator understand the image as a truthful representation of reality, the ideology of the audible demands that there exist simultaneously a different truth and another order of reality for the subject to grasp."
Ekman, I. 2005, Meaningful noise: Understanding sound effects in computer games. Paper presented at Digital Arts and Cultures, Kopenhagen.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 10/14/2008 01:21:01 AM
      To be diegetic, game sound must be considered real in the context of the story.
      A game sound that is a diegetic referent, references or signifies something real inside the game.
Eliot, T. S. (1936). Burnt Norton. In Four Quartets.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 03/28/2020 08:24:52 AM
      "human kind
Cannot bear very much reality."
Erlmann, V. (2000). Reason and resonance: A history of modern aurality. New York: Zone Books.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11/27/2014 09:46:54 AM
      Summarizing from Ernst Mach's (1838 - 1916) unpublished diaries, "physics, physiology, and psychology are part of a single field of knowledge in which "reality" is but a conglomeration of "sensational elements".
Evans, D. (2001). Emotion: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 05/28/2011 07:52:39 AM
      Remembering is never precise because items in memory are not recorded in their fine details. They are filed under keywords; these are extrcted and "educated guesswork" fills in the blanks. "It is more like reconstrcuting an antique pot from a few broken shards than replaying an old movie" (p.80).
      If consciousness depends on the capacity for subjective feelings and subjective feeling depend on the form of body one has, computer programs will always lack consciousness if they remain virtual. Hence 'evolutionary robotics' and 'embodied programs'.
Flach, J. M., & Holden, J. G. (1998). The reality of experience: Gibson's way. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(1), 90–95.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:21:24 PM
      Re Gibson, "action takes precedence. The experience depends more on what can be "done" than on the quality of visual or acoustic images."
      "in the design of experiences in virtual environments the constraints on action take precedence over the constraints on perception."
      "the reality of experience (i.e. presence or immersion)."
Ihde, D. (2007). Listening and voice: Phenomenologies of sound 2nd ed. Albany (NY): State University of New York Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01/22/2020 08:19:12 AM
      In Heideggerian terms, Ihde describes the auditory horizon as the point at which sounds are given over into the present. Sound is a giving and listening is what "lets come into presence the unbidden giving of sound."
      In describing visual depth and horizonal perspective, Ihde says the latter has "a constant ratio of present to hidden, of visible to invisible" and that, auditorily, "this hidden depth is silence"
Kracauer, S. (1960). Dialogue and sound. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from https://ifsstech.files. ... siegfried_kracauer1.pdf  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 02/19/2020 11:54:29 AM
      "...localizable sounds do not as a rule touch off conceptual reasoning, language-bound thought; rather, they share with unidentifiable noises the quality of bringing the material aspects of reality into focus."
Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated. Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 07/01/2021 07:58:26 AM
       "The term actual simply means that something can potentially be experienced by human sensory systems without using technology. It does not require the existence of something independent of human mentality; instead, it requires only the possibility of experiencing something without using any human-made technology. Therefore, the categorization of objects according to virtual and actual criteria is not concerned with the validity of rationalistic assumption that the subjective mental world exists independent of an objective physical world (the assumption behind cogito ergo sum). Nor does the categorization succumb to solipsism, which denies the existence of any objective reality and maintains only purely subjective reality, because it acknowledges the existence of actual objects independent of subjective reality [...] Real experience is the sensory experience of actual objects. Hallucination is the nonsensory experience of imaginary objects. Virtual experience is the sensory or nonsensory experience of virtual (either para-authentic or artificial) objects. Presence research is about virtual experience and has nothing to do with real experience of hallucination"
Lee, K. M. (2004). Why presence occurs: Evolutionary psychology, media equation, and presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(4), 494–505.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11/15/2018 11:30:58 AM
      Asks "why humans usually do not notice the virtuality of incoming stimuli and feel presence with little mental effort."
      "Humans are psychologically compelled to believe in relatively stable cause-effect structures in the world, even though they are not a perfect reflection of reality."
      A lack of knowledge of cause-effect structures poses a survival threat.
      Noting that, despite knowing that virtual objects and effects are not real, "people keep using their old brains" and so their first reaction is to treat virtuality as real.
      Discussing the reason why high fidelity of image is not necessary to presence – much of what we see is actually from peripheral vision and thus out of focus.
Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., & Davidoff, J. (2001). A cross-media presence questionnaire: The ITC-sense of presence inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 282–297.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:19:29 PM

"Draper et al. (1998) define telepresence as “the perception of presence within a physically remote or simulated site,” which suggests, de facto, that presence is a valid construct in relation to experience of the real (physical) world. This is a contentious issue, a full discussion of which is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is our view that presence is a more useful concept when it is limited to the study of users’ experiences of mediated presentations. Real-world experience can be adequately described in terms of more traditional psychological constructs: such as attention, involvement, and arousal, to name but a few. There seems little to gain from describing people’s everyday experience in terms of presence [...] At the very least, though, real-world experience is useful to presence research insofar as it serves as a benchmark, or standard, against which to subjectively judge levels of presence in mediated environments."

Draper, J. V., Kaber, D. B., & Usher, J. M. (1998). Telepresence. Human Factors, 40, 354 –375.

Lévy, P. (1998). Becoming virtual: Reality in the digital age R. Bononno, Trans. London: Plenum Trade.  
Added by: sirfragalot 06/23/2006 01:19:19 PM
      Reminds us that the word 'virtual' (from the Latin virtus meaning strength or power but also virtue) is used by philosophers to signify something with "potential rather than actual existence." Points out that "the virtual should not be compared with the real but with the actual, for virtuality and actuality are merely two different ways of being."
Loomis, J. M. (1992). Distal attribution and presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 113–119.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:19:04 PM
      Acknowledging that the operator of a teleoperation system experiences sensory information from remote/simulated environment and physical environment and that this often conflicts, Loomis makes use of Polyani's notions of subsidiary awareness and focal awareness. Where sensory stimulation from the remote environment is insufficient for true presence, the operator experiences a subsidiary awareness of the physical environment and/or teleoperation system he/she is actually in/using despite a focal awareness of the remote environment.

True telepresence is not possible as it is not possible to present the operator with precisely the same sensory stimulation they would receive were they to be actually in the remote environment.

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