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Adorno, T. W., & Eisler, H. (1994). Composing for the films. London: Athlone Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01/06/2007 07:09:36 AM
      "For the talking picture, too, is mute. The characters in it are not speaking people but speaking effigies, endowed with all the features of the pictorial, the photographic two-dimensionality, the lack of spatial depth. ... Although the sound of these words is sufficiently different from the sound of natural words, they are far from providing 'images of voices' in the same sense in which photography provides us with images of people"
Balázs, B. (1952). The theory of the film: Sound. Retrieved January 16, 2006, from ... adings/Humon_Belazs.pdf  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 10/23/2015 03:31:49 PM
      "...sound alone is not space creating."

Any sound (i.e. real sound that is recorded) always has some quality of its space recorded with it. "In this way, in the sound film, the fixed, immutable, permanent distance between spectator and actor is eliminated not only visually ... but acoustically as well. Not only as spectators, but as listeners, too, we are transferred from our seats to the space in which the events depicted on the screen are taking place."
      "We accept seen space as real only when it contains sounds as well, for these give it the dimension of depth."
Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 02/12/2014 04:37:10 PM
      "Auditory spatial awareness is more than just the ability to detect that space has changed sounds; it includes as well the emotional and behavioral experience of space."
      Because humans have an innate ability to produce sound (cf light production), "aural architecture is dynamic, reactive and enveloping." Spaces respond sonically to the human voice and sound-making but not visually.
      "A cognitive map of space is a combination of the rules of geometry as well as knowledge about the physical world. [...] This knowledge is acquired in childhood and continually modified in our experience as adults, we are not conscious of its existence. When sensing a spatial environment, an individual builds a cognitive map of space using a combination of sensory information and experiences accumulated over a lifetime. [The map] is subjective and personalized -- an active and synthetic creation -- rather than a passive reaction to stimuli."
Breitsameter, S. (2003). Acoustic ecology and the new electroacoustic space of digital networks. Soundscape, 4(2), 24–30.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 12/06/2006 10:41:12 AM
      Suggests that acoustic ecology may also be concerned with electroacoustic spaces.
Carpenter, E., & McLuhan, M. (1970). Acoustic space. In E. Carpenter & M. McLuhan (Eds), Explorations in Communication (pp. 65–70). London: Jonathan Cape.  
Added by: sirfragalot 01/07/2017 11:56:06 AM
      "Auditory space has no favored focus. It's a sphere without fixed boundaries, space made by the thing itself, not space containing the thing."
      "Auditory space has no boundaries in the visual sense [...] There is nothing in auditory space corresponding to the vanishing point in visual perspective [...] auditory space lacks the precision of visual orientation."
Carter, P. (2004). Ambiguous traces, mishearing, and auditory space. In V. Erlmann (Ed.), Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound Listening and Modernity (pp. 43–63). Oxford: Berg.  
Added by: sirfragalot 12/20/2007 05:14:31 PM
      "LISTENERS CONSTRUCT AUDITORY SPACE [...] To be communicative depends upon anticipating the other's moves."
      "Auditory space is durational, but it lacks music's (and writing's) commitment to linear development. Without a sense of ending, it is not located between silences."
Chagas, P. C. (2005). Polyphony and embodiment: A critical approach to the theory of autopoiesis. Revista Transcultural de Música, 9 Retrieved July 7, 2006, from  
Added by: sirfragalot 07/07/2006 11:11:38 AM
      "Reverberation becomes an instrument of the deconstruction and re-construction of space"
Clair, R. (1929). The art of sound. Retrieved January 16, 2006, from ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm  
Added by: sirfragalot 06/20/2006 08:17:52 AM
      Describes a single shot in which the camera is focussed on a face reacting to events (as described by sound) outside the screen. Clair makes the point that an equivalent to this one shot would require several shots in a silent movie. This is due "to the "unity of place" achieved through sound. Sound possesses an "economy of means" that allows it to replace image.
Connor, S. (2004). Sound and the self. In M. M. Smith (Ed.), Hearing History (pp. 54–66). Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01/22/2020 06:13:06 AM
      In the context of the invention and reception of the telephone which led to "perhaps the most important distinguishing feature of auditory experience, namely its capacity to disintegrate and reconfigure space."
Foucault, M. (1984). Of other spaces, heterotopias. Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité, 5, 46–49.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 12/17/2020 09:52:36 AM
      Defines the term heterotopia which is an "effectively enacted utopia in which the real sites, all the other real sites that can be found within the culture, are simultaneously represented, contested, and inverted. Places of this kind are outside of all places, even though it may be possible to indicate their location in reality."
      As an example of heterotopia, Foucault gives the example of a mirror. A mirror is a utopia but, because it does exist in reality, it is also a heterotopia exerting a "counteraction on the position" the viewer occupies. "...a virtual space that opens up behind the surface; I see myself there, there where I am not, a sort of shadow that gives my own visibility to myself, that enables me to see myself there where I am absent".
Grönlund, B. 1997, March 21 Urbanity: Lived space and difference. Paper presented at Urbanity & Aesthetics, Copenhagen University.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01/25/2006 01:48:52 PM
      Some discussion of Lebebvre's differential space with some criteria being:

Differential space - some criteria
Dominated by users
Time is a resource
Non-quantifiable activities
Creative space for love, being, works, amenities
A place of festivity
The space of non-labour
Some degree of pluralism
Eroticized space
Space of ambiguity
Fixed, semi-fixed, movable or vacant
Situational, relational space
Compact, highly elaborated places of encounter and transition
Empty places for play and encounter - unspecified places
Spaces for minorities and the marginal

Differential space is the 3rd historical stage in Lefebvre's ontological transformation of space.
Gumbrecht, H. U. (2004). Production of presence: What meaning cannot convey. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 05/02/2021 03:09:05 PM
      Argues that, because presence-cultures have the body as a self-referent, "space, that is, that dimension that constitutes itself around bodies, must be the primordial dimension in which the relationship between different humans and the things of the world are being negotiated. Time, in contrast, is the primordial dimension for any meaning culture, because there seems to be an unavoidable relationship between consciousness and temporality [...] Above all, however, time is the primordial dimension of any meaning culture, because it takes time to carry out those transformative actions through which meaning cultures define the relationship between humans and the world."
Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans. Oxford: Blackwell.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 12/04/2020 09:49:47 AM
      "The ecstatical temporality of the spatiality that is characteristic of Dasein, makes it intelligible that space is independent of time; but on the other hand, this same temporality also makes intelligible Dasein's 'dependence' on space—a 'dependence' which manifests itself in the well-known phenomenon that both Dasein's interpretation of itself and the whole stock of significations which belong to language in general are dominated through and through by 'spatial representations'.
Johannesen, H.-L. Performative space: Architecture beyond media? Retrieved March 21, 2006, from ... designskolen/paper1.pdf  
Added by: sirfragalot 03/21/2006 12:53:46 PM
      "A performative space is, ultimately, a user oriented or user required space. The inhabitant of a space is understood as a participant more than a visitor, more using the space than being in space"
      "You have to perform to use the potential of space"
      "The medium of immersive virtual space is not merely a conceptual space but also a physical space, due to the potential of extension and envelopment three-dimensional [sic]"
Kracauer, S. (1960). Dialogue and sound. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from https://ifsstech.files. ... siegfried_kracauer1.pdf  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 02/19/2020 11:54:29 AM
      "The puzzling noises which the night is apt to produce attune the listener primarily to his physical environment because of their origin in some ungiven region of it."
      "...localizable sounds do not as a rule touch off conceptual reasoning, language-bound thought; rather, they share with unidentifiable noises the quality of bringing the material aspects of reality into focus."
Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 08/11/2006 12:37:22 PM
      "Whatever is represented in speech (or to some lesser extent in writing) inevitably has to bow to the logic of time and of sequence in time. ... Human engagement with the world through speech or writing cannot escape that logic; it orders and shapes that human engagement with the world. Whatever is represented in image has to bow, equally, to the logic of space, and to the simultaneity of elements in spatial arrangements. ... 'The world narrated' is a different world to 'the world depicted and displayed'."
LaBelle, B. (2006). Background noise: Perspectives on sound art. New York: Continuum.  
Added by: sirfragalot 03/09/2014 12:13:35 PM
      "Amplifying existing sounds, fostering auditory dialogues across inside and outside, tapping into structural vibrations to expand the sonic palette of tonality, and designing listening experiences by harnessing the environmental mix of found auditory events: each of these procedures come to the fore in sound installation, blossoming more fully into the beginnings of sound art as a distinct discipline."
      "Xenakis's example is indispensable to any formulation of a history of sound art by forging a dynamic mix of musical and spatial elements. To appropriate and create architecture for renewed sense of listening, sound installation moves increasingly toward public space, situating the listener within a larger framework of sonic experience that is necessarily social, thereby leaving behind the singular object or space for an enlarged environmental potential."
      "sound makes a given space appear beyond any total viewpoint: in echoing throughout the room, my clapping describes the space from a multiplicity of perspectives and locations, for the room is here, between the space of my palms, and there, along the trajectory of sound, appearing at multiple locations within its walls, for "the sound wave arriving at the ear is the analogue of the current state of the environment, because as the wave travels, it is charged by each interaction with the environment"1."

1. Barry Truax. 1994. Acoustic Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. p.15.

Lastra, J. (1992). Reading, writing, and representing sound. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 65–86). New York: Routledge.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 03/03/2006 02:09:52 PM
      Developing Altman's description of 1930s sound recording/representation development (spatial fidelity giving way to intelligibility): "A recording with a high degree of reflected sound, or some other indication of spatial signature, is linked to sound considered as an event, while closely-miked sound, with a relatively "contextless" spatial signature, is linked to sound considered as an intelligible structure -- as a signifying element with a larger structure."

Although this is usually aplied to speech, Lastra points out that it also applies to sound FX.
Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space D. Nicholson-Smith, Trans. Oxford: Blackwell.  
Added by: sirfragalot 12/17/2020 10:19:17 AM
      Complex spaces can be distinguished as:

1. Isotopias -- analogous places.

2. Heterotopias -- contrasting places, prohibited places(?).

3. Utopias -- no place, the absolute, symbolic, imaginary.

See also Foucault (1984) for heterotopias.
      Like Foucault's (1984) heteretopia (described earlier), Lefebvre's heteretopia is a prohibited space. The uncanny half-presence of the image of self in the online meeting is likewise prohibitive.
Martin, R. L., Thrift, N. J., & Bennett, R. J. (Eds). (1978). Towards the dynamic analysis of spatial systems. London: Pion.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 08/01/2006 03:05:53 PM
      "...spatial systems are inherently unstable, prone to fluctuation and oscillation, to discontinuous shifts in behaviour and structure, and to adaptation and evolution from within"
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