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Adorno, T. W., & Eisler, H. (1994). Composing for the films. London: Athlone Press.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/6/07, 7:09 AM
"For the talking picture, too, is mute. The characters in it are not speaking people but speaking effigies, endowed with all the features of the pictorial, the photographic two-dimensionality, the lack of spatial depth. ... Although the sound of these words is sufficiently different from the sound of natural words, they are far from providing 'images of voices' in the same sense in which photography provides us with images of people"
Balázs, B. (1952). The theory of the film: Sound. Retrieved January 16, 2006, from ... adings/Humon_Belazs.pdf   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/23/15, 3:31 PM
"...sound alone is not space creating."

Any sound (i.e. real sound that is recorded) always has some quality of its space recorded with it. "In this way, in the sound film, the fixed, immutable, permanent distance between spectator and actor is eliminated not only visually ... but acoustically as well. Not only as spectators, but as listeners, too, we are transferred from our seats to the space in which the events depicted on the screen are taking place."
"We accept seen space as real only when it contains sounds as well, for these give it the dimension of depth."
Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/23/23, 3:11 PM
"Auditory spatial awareness is more than just the ability to detect that space has changed sounds; it includes as well the emotional and behavioral experience of space."
Because humans have an innate ability to produce sound (cf light production), "aural architecture is dynamic, reactive and enveloping." Spaces respond sonically to the human voice and sound-making but not visually.
"A cognitive map of space is a combination of the rules of geometry as well as knowledge about the physical world. [...] This knowledge is acquired in childhood and continually modified in our experience as adults, we are not conscious of its existence. When sensing a spatial environment, an individual builds a cognitive map of space using a combination of sensory information and experiences accumulated over a lifetime. [The map] is subjective and personalized -- an active and synthetic creation -- rather than a passive reaction to stimuli."
"auditory spatial awareness also contributes to our ability to thrive in socially complex groups."
"our modern brains are an evolutionary solution to older problems; biological trade-offs over millions of years determined the properties of our auditory and cognitive cortices."
Summarizes (then) current neuroscientific research about the different roles of the two hemispheres of the brain indicating that the creative functions (including music, nonverbal speech, and emotional expression) are in the right and so more-or-less separate from functions such as language and reason which are found in the left.
"Hemispherical specialization implies that various substrates are only partially aware of what other substrates are experiencing. In fact, what we think of as the unity of consciousness is not unified at all—it just appears that way."
"Because evolution did not provide us with a reliable mechanism to observe and communicate affect, using scientific experiments to understand the aural experience of spatiality is fraught with risks and uncertainty."
"bats in the Amazon valley shifted their vocalization from the more typical 100,000 Hz region to 8,000 Hz because the high humidity of the tropical rain forests rapidly attenuates ultrasonic signals (Griffin, 1971). Male short-tailed crickets can increase the area of their calling song by a factor of 14 by perching in treetops instead of on the ground (Paul and Walker, 1979). Fish take can take advantage of the highfrequency cutoff of shallow water to avoid detection by predators but still maintain communication with their conspecifics (Forrest, Miller, and Zagar, 1993). As these examples clearly illustrate, animals are more than merely aware of their particular acoustic environment. They use that awareness to evolve more useful communication strategies within a shared competitive auditory channel."

Griffin, D. (1971). The importance of atmospheric attenuation for the echolocation of bats (Chiroptera).
Animal Behavior 19: 55–61.
Paul, R., and Walker, T. (1979). Arboreal singing in a burrowing cricket, Anurogryllus arboreus. Jour-
nal of Comparative Physiology 132: 217–223.
Forrest, T., Miller, G., and Zagar, J. (1993). Sound propagation in shallow water: Implications for
acoustics communications by aquatic animals. Bioacoustics: The International Journal of Animal
Sound and Its Recording 4: 259–270.

"When traditional experiments involving rats in a maze were reexamined, earlier results were questioned and challenged because experimenters had not considered the rat’s ability to detect spatial properties using the auditory channel."
Breitsameter, S. (2003). Acoustic ecology and the new electroacoustic space of digital networks. Soundscape, 4(2), 24–30.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/6/06, 10:41 AM
Suggests that acoustic ecology may also be concerned with electroacoustic spaces.
Carpenter, E., & McLuhan, M. (1970). Acoustic space. In E. Carpenter & M. McLuhan (Eds), Explorations in Communication (pp. 65–70). London: Jonathan Cape.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/7/17, 11:56 AM
"Auditory space has no favored focus. It's a sphere without fixed boundaries, space made by the thing itself, not space containing the thing."
"Auditory space has no boundaries in the visual sense [...] There is nothing in auditory space corresponding to the vanishing point in visual perspective [...] auditory space lacks the precision of visual orientation."
Carter, P. (2004). Ambiguous traces, mishearing, and auditory space. In V. Erlmann (Ed.), Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound Listening and Modernity (pp. 43–63). Oxford: Berg.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/20/07, 5:14 PM
"LISTENERS CONSTRUCT AUDITORY SPACE [...] To be communicative depends upon anticipating the other's moves."
"Auditory space is durational, but it lacks music's (and writing's) commitment to linear development. Without a sense of ending, it is not located between silences."
Casati, R., Dokic, J., & Di Bona, E. (2005-2020). Sounds. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 27, 2021, from   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/11/24, 10:09 AM
"the various philosophical pronouncements about the nature of sounds can be rather neatly classified according to the spatial status each of them assigns to sounds. Where are sounds? Are they anywhere? The main relevant families of answers include proximal, medial, distal, and aspatial theories."
Proximal theory of sound/sound as sensation: "If sounds are simply defined as the objects of audition, then they are easily identified with the qualitative aspects of auditory perception. Various strands of indirect realism in perception would make this view mandatory. According to them, it is by hearing the immediate, proximal items that we hear some distal events or objects."

In rejecting the idea that sounds are proximal stimuli (cf. (O'Shaughnessy 2009)), a number of arguments are used including:

  • if sound is at the hearer's position then the number of sounds = the number of listeners
  • Failing this, then a single sound can exist in multiple locations

Also rejected is that, while the fact that the sound of something distant sounds different if one were close up (an argument for sound as proximal stimuli), that we have no notion of distal volume or loudness of a sound—we do. A motorcycle at a distance can still be judged to be loud.

The fault, apparently, is that the proximal stimulus theory does not "distinguish between source and informational channel." Thus, the information derived from a sound wave includes not only information about the original sound wave but also filtering in the medium, reflections, absorption, echoes and so on.

Another fault is that our everyday experience locates sound where the sound wave source is.

O'Shaughnessy, B. (2009). The location of a perceived sound. In M. Nudds & C. O'Callaghan (Eds), Sounds & Perception (pp. 111–125). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In dicussing medial theories, early proponents (or at least forebearers) of the wave view of sound are noted including Aristotle, Galileo, and Descartes who all stated that sound is a movement in air. Thus modern acoustics and the standard definition of sound as a sound wave.

Arguments against the medial/wave view include:

  • the existence of infrasound and ultrasound (the same physical nature as other sound waves but not sensed)
  • a sound wave does not necessarily depend on the physical property of the sounding object (cf loudspeakers)
  • as with proximal theories, medial theories do not locate sounds where our everyday experience would locate them (at the source and so at a distance and unmoving)
  • if sounds were sound waves where then is the information contained in them that informs about the sound source, its distance, the sound's loudness, and so on—everything that we experience in everyday perception of sound?
Within distal theories of sound, there are four main concepts:
  • Sound is a property. Like colours, smells, and shapes, sounds are secondary qualities being sensory qualities. One might object that an object does not have a sound—unlike the object that has a smell, colour, or shape—rather the object produces a sound. Another objection is that sounds are dynamic and "intrinsically temporal entities" and, unlike colours and shapes, are individuals.
  • Sound is a located event. Sounds are events that happen to material objects. They are located at the material source and can be identified with, or at least supervene on, the vibrations of that object. A medium is required to transmit the sound to a listener but is not required for the sound' existence—a tuning fork in a vacuum still produces a sound; it simply cannot be transmitted to us. In this theory, sound is also an "intrinsically temporal entity." Nevertheless, sounds can also be mislocated, as with echoes, and the Doppler effect might suggest that sound is in fact medial. However, a proponent of this distal theory would simply argue that it is the medium that affects our perception of pitch change—to anyone remaining with the sound source, the sound does not change. Other objections are typically countered by the charge that the objector confuses sound with a sound wave.
  • Sound is a relational event. Sounds are events involving both source and medium. Developed from Aristotle's statement "everything that makes a sound does so by the impact of something against something else, across a space filled with air" (De Anima II.8 420b15). This is usually taken as an argument for the medial view of sound as a sound wave but has been interpreted by O'Callaghan to mean that sound waves are not the sounds themselves but the effects of the sounds. Thus, the medium is required for sound and so sound does not exist in a vacuum.
  • Sound is the disposition of an object to vibrate upon being stimulated. In this way it is like colour which might be explained as the disposition of an object to reflect white light in a particular way. Without vibration, objects may well have sounds but they cannot be heard. Hitting, or 'thwacking,' an object is aking to shining white light upon an object—it reveals the sound as the light reveals the colour. An objection might be that, in fact, there are many dispositions to vibrating/sounding when thwacked as illustrated byt the different vibratory characteristics of an amplitude envelope. Equally, there are many types of thwackers that can be used, each eliciting a different vibration and sound. What also of the sound that lasts once the vibrational disposition has ceased? We also hear sounds as unfolding over time which is more process and event than disposition.
Chagas, P. C. (2005). Polyphony and embodiment: A critical approach to the theory of autopoiesis. Revista Transcultural de Música, 9 Retrieved July 7, 2006, from   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/7/06, 11:11 AM
"Reverberation becomes an instrument of the deconstruction and re-construction of space"
Clair, R. (1929). The art of sound. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:17 AM
Describes a single shot in which the camera is focussed on a face reacting to events (as described by sound) outside the screen. Clair makes the point that an equivalent to this one shot would require several shots in a silent movie. This is due "to the "unity of place" achieved through sound. Sound possesses an "economy of means" that allows it to replace image.
Connor, S. (2004). Sound and the self. In M. M. Smith (Ed.), Hearing History (pp. 54–66). Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/22/20, 6:13 AM
In the context of the invention and reception of the telephone which led to "perhaps the most important distinguishing feature of auditory experience, namely its capacity to disintegrate and reconfigure space."
Corvellec, H., & Paulsson, A. (2023). Resource shifting: Resourcification and de-resourcification for degrowth. Ecological Economics, 205.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/30/23, 8:55 AM

"Drawing from the recent resourcification manifesto (Hultman et al., 2021), we propose that many of the calls for socioecological transformations are, in fact, a plea for resource shifting. Resource shifting denotes the ending of unsustainable resourcification practices while at the same time promoting sustainable practices."

Reference: (Hultman et al. 2021).

Hultman, J., Corvellec, H., Jerneck, A., Arvidsson, S., Ekroos, J., & Gustafsson, C., et al. (2021). A resourcification manifesto: Understanding the social process of resources becoming resources. Research Policy, 50(9), 1–7.
De-resourceification is "the unbecoming of resources"
Evans, G. (1985). Collected papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/10/24, 6:50 AM
"The connection between space and objectivity lies so deep in our conceptual scheme that many philosophers pass from 'objective' to 'outer' without even noticing the question they beg. The subjective being regarded as what is 'in the mind', the objective becomes what is 'without the mind, and then it is easy to say with Hobbes that if we have a conception of a thing without the mind, we have a conception of space."
Foucault, M. (1984). Of other spaces, heterotopias. Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité, 5, 46–49.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/17/20, 9:52 AM
Defines the term heterotopia which is an "effectively enacted utopia in which the real sites, all the other real sites that can be found within the culture, are simultaneously represented, contested, and inverted. Places of this kind are outside of all places, even though it may be possible to indicate their location in reality."
As an example of heterotopia, Foucault gives the example of a mirror. A mirror is a utopia but, because it does exist in reality, it is also a heterotopia exerting a "counteraction on the position" the viewer occupies. "...a virtual space that opens up behind the surface; I see myself there, there where I am not, a sort of shadow that gives my own visibility to myself, that enables me to see myself there where I am absent".
Grönlund, B. 1997, March 21, Urbanity: Lived space and difference. Paper presented at Urbanity & Aesthetics, Copenhagen University.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/25/06, 1:48 PM
Some discussion of Lebebvre's differential space with some criteria being:

Differential space - some criteria
Dominated by users
Time is a resource
Non-quantifiable activities
Creative space for love, being, works, amenities
A place of festivity
The space of non-labour
Some degree of pluralism
Eroticized space
Space of ambiguity
Fixed, semi-fixed, movable or vacant
Situational, relational space
Compact, highly elaborated places of encounter and transition
Empty places for play and encounter - unspecified places
Spaces for minorities and the marginal

Differential space is the 3rd historical stage in Lefebvre's ontological transformation of space.
Gumbrecht, H. U. (2004). Production of presence: What meaning cannot convey. Stanford: Stanford University Press.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/8/23, 7:46 AM
Argues that, because presence-cultures have the body as a self-referent, "space, that is, that dimension that constitutes itself around bodies, must be the primordial dimension in which the relationship between different humans and the things of the world are being negotiated. Time, in contrast, is the primordial dimension for any meaning culture, because there seems to be an unavoidable relationship between consciousness and temporality [...] Above all, however, time is the primordial dimension of any meaning culture, because it takes time to carry out those transformative actions through which meaning cultures define the relationship between humans and the world."
Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans. Oxford: Blackwell.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/11/23, 12:24 PM
"The ecstatical temporality of the spatiality that is characteristic of Dasein, makes it intelligible that space is independent of time; but on the other hand, this same temporality also makes intelligible Dasein's 'dependence' on space—a 'dependence' which manifests itself in the well-known phenomenon that both Dasein's interpretation of itself and the whole stock of significations which belong to language in general are dominated through and through by 'spatial representations'.
Hultman, J., Corvellec, H., Jerneck, A., Arvidsson, S., Ekroos, J., & Gustafsson, C., et al. (2021). A resourcification manifesto: Understanding the social process of resources becoming resources. Research Policy, 50(9), 1–7.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/9/23, 5:59 PM
"We define resourcification as the social processes involved in turning something into a resource. This definition shifts the focus away from essentialist queries about the amount or features of resources to the study of their becoming resources. Correspondingly, we define deresourcification as the processes through which something is no longer considered a resource."
"Our goal is the creation of a critical, interdisciplinary platform to identify, describe, and explain interactions among humans, other living organisms, and the environment."
"It follows, therefore, that although the use of resources is a condition for all life, our agenda is concerned with anthropogenic resourcification under the increasingly perilous conditions of the Anthropocene."
"Anthropogenic resourcification is founded on extractivism: the exploitation of soil nutrients, minerals, and other extractable things. Extractivism is based on the anthropocentric assumption that natural and human-made environments, materials, processes, and beings – including humans – are a cheap and ready-to-resourcify stock of inputs waiting to be dominated and exploited. Extractivism applies to what is seen as both renewable and non-renewable resources."
"Internet technology made it possible for intermediaries such as Amazon, Airbnb, and Alibaba to develop global market-making infrastructures that resourcify themselves and the suppliers and customers they connect"
"Resourcification is conditioned upon the practical possibility of abstracting and extracting the potential resource from its current setting and moving it to a new geographical, social, and technological setting."
Johannesen, H.-L. Performative space: Architecture beyond media? Retrieved March 21, 2006, from ... designskolen/paper1.pdf   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/21/06, 12:53 PM
"A performative space is, ultimately, a user oriented or user required space. The inhabitant of a space is understood as a participant more than a visitor, more using the space than being in space"
"You have to perform to use the potential of space"
"The medium of immersive virtual space is not merely a conceptual space but also a physical space, due to the potential of extension and envelopment three-dimensional [sic]"
Kracauer, S. (1960). Dialogue and sound. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from https://ifsstech.files. ... siegfried_kracauer1.pdf   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:23 AM
"The puzzling noises which the night is apt to produce attune the listener primarily to his physical environment because of their origin in some ungiven region of it."
"...localizable sounds do not as a rule touch off conceptual reasoning, language-bound thought; rather, they share with unidentifiable noises the quality of bringing the material aspects of reality into focus."
Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/11/06, 12:37 PM
"Whatever is represented in speech (or to some lesser extent in writing) inevitably has to bow to the logic of time and of sequence in time. ... Human engagement with the world through speech or writing cannot escape that logic; it orders and shapes that human engagement with the world. Whatever is represented in image has to bow, equally, to the logic of space, and to the simultaneity of elements in spatial arrangements. ... 'The world narrated' is a different world to 'the world depicted and displayed'."
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