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Clair, R. (1929). The art of sound. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:17 AM
"We must draw a distinction here between those sound effects which are amusing only by virtue of their novelty (which soon wears off), and those that help one to understand the action, and which excite emotions which could not have been roused by the sight of the pictures alone. The visual world at the birth of the cinema seemed to hold immeasurably richer promise.... However, if imitation of real noises seems limited and disappointing, it is possible that an interpretation of noises may have more of a future in it. Sound cartoons, using "real" noises, seem to point to interesting possibilities."
Lastra, J. (2000). Sound technology and the American cinema: Perception, representation, modernity. New York: Columbia University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/13/06, 10:16 AM
In a section discussing the idea of sound representation, the 'original sound' and the theories of Williams, Leven and Altman as opposed to those of Baudry, Metz et. al., Lastra states: "...given a particular "original," [sic] it is impossible to predict what any copy will sound like..." and uses this as a justification for the theoretical worthlessness of the "original". Lastra takes Edison's view on the function of the original: it's not meant to be heard by anyone, it is "one stage of a multistage representational process." p.128
Lastra, J. (1992). Reading, writing, and representing sound. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 65–86). New York: Routledge.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/3/06, 2:09 PM
Here, Lastra is paraphrasing Chrstian Metz to whom what is important is the functional or narrative use of sound in film rather than whether a sound is authentic or not. "...what matters is the ability to identify the source of the sound. ...the sound event must be legible -- it must be recongnizable across a series of different contexts as a culturally defined signifying unit. Against the definition of sound as an essentially unrepeatable event, Metz describes sound as an eminently repeatable and intelligible structure."
Discussing the notion of an 'original' sound prior to recording and reproduction: "...the primary ideological effect of sound recording might be creation of the effect that there is an "original" independent of its representation."
Makes the interesting point that, when discussing a recording of sound, much of our understanding of what that sound will be like is derived from assumptions (culturally and technologically derived) as to how that sound was recorded. The sound is therefore pre-structured for us before we get to even hear it.
Schafer, R. M. (1994). The soundscape: Our sonic environment and the tuning of the world. Rochester Vt: Destiny Books.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/14/14, 4:44 PM
"In onomatopoeic vocabulary, man unites himself with the soundscape about him, echoing back its elements. The impression is taken in; the expression is thrown back in return."
Théberge, P. (1989). The 'sound' of music: Technological rationalization and the production of popular music. New Formations, 8, 99–111.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/14/06, 2:09 PM
"the 'artificial tonality' that is characteristic of multitrack recordings can be regarded as a ... result of a shift in recording aesthetics away from 'realistic' documentation of a musical event to the creation of one."
Wurtzler, S. (1992). "She sang live, but the microphone was turned off": The live, the recorded and the subject of representation. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 87–103). New York: Routledge.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/3/06, 2:56 PM
A representation posits "an absent original event"
The audiophile has a "fetishistic relationship to the means of representing [in order to gain] increased access to an original performance event"
Representational technologies (including virtual reality) are representations for which there is no original event: "[C]opies are produced for which no original exists"
WIKINDX 6.8.2 | Total resources: 1297 | Username: -- | Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography | Style: American Psychological Association (APA)