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Altman, R. (1992). Sound space. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 46–64). New York: Routledge.  
Added by: sirfragalot 2/16/06, 8:28 AM
      An important point here is the relation between sound scale and image scale and the effect on film sound of single microphone technique, multiple mikes, mixing, sound editing, microhpone placements etc. In the early '30s, the emphasis was directed to authentic spatial recording (with a human body analogy) but, with the development of condensor microphones (required to be close to the sound source) and boom technology, this shifted to an emphasis on clarity (of dialogue). This had implications for mixing in post-production leading to the contruction of a sound track rather that its recording. By the end of the decade, attempts to match sound scale accurately to image scale had been all but discarded.
      By the end of the '30s, sound scale/image scale proportionality had been discarded in favour of (dialogue) intelligibility. The notion of the internal auditor (point-of-audition) was developed -- the spectator is required to identify with or inhabit the body of an on-screen character who will hear for us. Reverberation is used to identify sound intended for this character (little or no reverb) or not (greater ratio of reverberated sound to direct sound). The spectator is inserted into the film narrative "at the very intersection of two spaces [film space and the internal auditor's space (the character's body)] which the image alone is incapable of linking, thus giving us the sensation of controlling the relationship between those spaces." (p.61)
Doane, M. A. (1980). Ideology and the practice of sound editing and mixing. In T. de Lauretis & S. Heath (Eds), The Cinematic Apparatus (pp. 47–56). London: Macmillan.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 2/24/06, 9:11 AM
      Quoting John Cass from 1930 describing the early sound film "the sound which would be heard by a man with five or six very long ears, said ears extending in various directions".
Gröhn, M., Lokki, T., Savioja, L., & Takala, T. 2001, January 22–23 Some aspects of role of audio in immersive visualization. Paper presented at Visual Data Exploration and Analysis VIII, San Jose.  
Added by: sirfragalot 2/16/06, 8:30 AM
      Briefly suggest that there may be some potential in the separation of listening and viewing points.
Lastra, J. (2000). Sound technology and the American cinema: Perception, representation, modernity. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 3/13/06, 10:16 AM
      Discussing the development of sound recording in Hollywood 1926-34, describes the notion of the 'invisible auditor' with an experience similar to that of a listener in a concert hall (able to discriminate every nuance of sound) -- hence close boom miking (to provide this discrimination but seemingly incompatible with the concert goer in the middle of the audience).
Thompson, K., & Bordwell, D. (2003). Film history: An introduction 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.  
Added by: sirfragalot 2/16/06, 9:46 AM
      The ability to record then mix sound to film at a later date was increasingly possible from 1931 onwards.
WIKINDX 6.5.0 | Total resources: 1103 | Username: -- | Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography | Style: American Psychological Association (APA)

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