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Presence defined. (2000). Retrieved February 13, 2019, from  
Added by: sirfragalot 02/13/2019 08:52:45 AM
      "Presence (a shortened version of the term “telepresence”) is a psychological state or subjective perception in which even though part or all of an individual’s current experience is generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology, part or all of the individual’s perception fails to accurately acknowledge the role of the technology in the experience. Except in the most extreme cases, the individual can indicate correctly that s/he is using the technology, but at *some level* and to *some degree*, her/his perceptions overlook that knowledge and objects, events, entities, and environments are perceived as if the technology was not involved in the experience. Experience is defined as a person’s observation of and/or interaction with objects, entities, and/or events in her/his environment; perception, the result of perceiving, is defined as a meaningful interpretation of experience."
Abbate, C. (2004). Music: Drastic or gnostic? Critical Inquiry, 30(3), 505–536.  
Added by: sirfragalot 08/11/2020 04:57:50 PM
      "Real music is a temporal event with material presence that can be held by no hand. So why assume that musical sound made in time by the labor of performance is well served by recourse to a philosophical tradition that indeed deconstructs presence, but does so easily because it traffics exclusively in metaphysical objects? [paraphrasing and quoting Gumbrecht:] a critical discourse accounting for the “movement, immediacy, and violence” in events being “born to presence” prove more fertile. What Gumbrecht calls meaning culture and presence culture do not gain legitimacy by excluding each other. One of them is perpetually in danger of appearing illegitimate in the academy—presence culture. Yet meaning culture—scholarship’s privileged culture—is inadequate to deal with certain aesthetic phenomena, events like performed music in particular."

See Gumbrecht, “Form without Matter vs. Form as Event,” pp. 586–87. Here too, as in Jankélévitch, a hint of medieval theology makes an appearance.


See also (Gumbrecht 2004) for more on meaning culture and presence culture.

Anzieu, D. (1989). The skin ego: A psychoanalytical approach to the self C. Turner, Trans. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 03/26/2021 10:24:51 AM
      Citing number of studies of babies, these "suggest that mental capacities operate first on acoustic material [the suggestion] that the differentiations of gestures and mimicry [...] are at the root of social communication and mental representation, comes to seem improbable. It appears that feedback loops with the environment are formed much earlier in the baby. These are audio-phonological in nature"
      "the Self forms as a sound envelope through the experience of a bath of sounds [...] This sound-bath prefigures the Skin Ego  with its double face, one half turned towards the outer world, the other towards the inner, since the sound envelope is composed of sounds emitted either by the baby or the environment. The combination of these sounds therefore produces (a) a common space-volume permitting bilateral exchange [...] (b) a first (spatio-auditory) image of one's own body"
Barfield, W. (2016). Musings on Presence twenty-five years after "Being There". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 148–150.  
Added by: sirfragalot 02/08/2019 11:15:43 AM
      "we particularly need more studies on how the nonvisual modalities (e.g. haptic, gustatory, auditory, smell) affect the sense of presence"
Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T. B., & Slater, M. (1995). Presence and performance within virtual environments. In W. Barfield & T. A. Furness III (Eds), Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design (pp. 473–513). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 07/06/2020 09:01:55 AM
      The authors base their definition of presence in virtual environments (being there) on presence in non-virtual or real worlds and take this foundational definition from Webster's: ""Presence" generally refers to the sense of being present in time or space at a particular location"
      "An important point to emphasize is that it is necessary for attentional resources to be directed to stimulus information before the sense of presence can occur."
      Note that presence can occur when only a subset of sensory modalities are engaged. Claim that many VEs "successfully invoke presence" via auditory and visual modalities only.
Barfield, W., & Weghorst, S. 1993, August 8—13 The sense of presence within virtual environments: A conceptual framework. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Amsterdam.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:22:15 PM
      Proposes a number of factors influencing presence in VEs (virtual presence):
  • display fidelity
  • environmental stability
  • sensory bandwidth (phenomenal richness)
  • interactive fidelity
  • person variables
  • task variables
  • context variables


      "Virtual presence is generally conceived of as a hypothetical subjective state of awareness and involvement in a non-present environment."
      Proposes a number of psychphysiological means to assess presence.
      Attempting to assess presence: "we might expect a performance decrement on concurrent tasks defined solely in the natural environment. And when natural and virtual frames of reference call for conflicting responses, the direction of resolution of the conflict may also serve as an indicator of the degree of presence within each. Furthermore, as the sense of presence increases, the attentional resoures allocated to the objects or tasks performed in the virtual environment should increase. Therefore, we postulate that as the sense of presence increases, the virtual environment participant will pay less attention to sensory input external to the virtual environment."
Benyon, D., Smyth, M., O'Neill, S., McCall, R., & Carroll, F. (2006). The place probe: Exploring a sense of place in real and virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6), 668–687.  
Added by: sirfragalot 09/16/2018 03:17:44 PM
      "the sense of presence requires a body; it is not just a mental construct."
Berry, C. (1987). The actor and his text. London: Harrap.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 08/14/2020 03:34:17 PM
      "...our voice is our sound presence, and is the means by which we commit our private world to the world outside"
Blumenberg, H. (1983). The legitimacy of the modern age R. M. Wallace, Trans. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 01/18/2021 12:32:59 PM
      "the discovery of the telescope signifies a caesura, beyond which a continuous increase in accessible reality could be anticipated"
Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the feeling of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 376–391.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 08/14/2020 03:36:16 PM
      If anxiety is a mild form of fear is it related to greater attention to the sensory world (being anxious to survive) and so a larger salient horizon? Is the extent of the salient horizon directly related to presence?
      Suggest that there is a limit to the linear equation between increasing sophistication of immersive technology/level of realism and development of presence.
      Not only external factors but also "psychological states and appraisal patterns of users might also affect presence."
Brainard, F. S. (1997). Reality and mystical experience. Unpublished PhD thesis, Temple University.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/04/2020 03:05:54 PM
      "'presence' is perhaps more accurately thought of as a verb than a noun. It is rather the process that manifests — 'presences' — properties."
      "Humans presence those things particular to human beings — languages, political borders, artifacts, and so on. Animals presence what is particular to their own natures. So do plants. And matter presences material publicities. Presencing taken as a noun — as a presence — is thus a spatiotemporal site of publicity instantiation. Since in this schema, all publicity, even material regularities, originate with awarenesses, a presence may also be characterized as a site for the publicity producing activity of awarenesses."
      "presence is defined as that which when conjoined to publicity yields a particular. It may also be defined as the process (verb) that renders publicity to be a particular [...] presence in this project also means the fact or condition of being manifest to or by awarenesses"
      "a particular is a singular instantiation, thus an individual"
      "The term 'publicity', derived from the word 'public', already exists in epistemology and refers to that which is the same for a group of knowing subjects — that which is singular for a plurality of awarenesses."
      Thus, to presence is the process of making a particular from a public singular instantiation and the presence of a singularity is what is within the awareness of one or more individuals. Awareness, according to Brainard, is particular to sentient agencies, and so this raises the question of whether non-sentient 'agencies' are capable of presencing in this sense. Apparently yes, but the awareness of non-sentient matter is not active intention or knowledge but, rather relates to the matter's maintenance of its physical regularity – i.e., a chair maintains chairness . . .

This still seems to be two different forms of presencing and presence.

      "awareness applies not just to a capability or to a receptive 'knowing', but also to intention and action as well [...] awareness applies not just to sentient agencies but also to certain non-sentient ones (i.e., the maintenance of physical regularities by matter). In this schema, awareness is defined on the basis of its roles in the definitions for publicity and presence. In the case of publicity, it names that which originates and maintains publicity, regardless of any other considerations."
      "presence is not, itself a publicity [...] description is never the presence itself; it only refers to presence."
Brewer, W. F. (1986). What is autobiographical memory? In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Autobiographical memory (pp. 25–49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 07/14/2020 08:37:05 AM

"I intend to argue that the self is composed of an experiencing ego, a self-schema, and an associated set of personal memories and autobiographical facts.

Ego. By ego I mean the conscious experiencing entity that is the focus of our phenomenal experience. The ego is the aspect of a person that experiences things from the "inside." The ego is the conscious aspect of the mind that moves through space and time. It is the memory for the ego's moment-to-moment experience that we call personal memories.

Self-schema. The self-schema is the cognitive structure that contains generic knowledge about the self. In the same way that individuals have knowledge about the solar system or knowledge about Walter Cronkite, individuals have knowledge about themselves. This knowledge is presumably organized into unconscious mental structures that interact with incoming information about the self (Brewer & Nakamura, 1984; Rumelhart, 1980). Some of the information that goes into making up the self-schema is private and available only to the self; other information is public and available to an observer. The self-schema must be one of the richer knowledge structures in an individual's long-term memory; hence, once it has developed, it probably changes only slowly, thus providing consistency to the self over time.

Self. The self is the complex mental structure that includes the ego, the self-schema, and portions of long-term memory related to the ego-self (e.g., personal memories, generic personal memories, and autobiographical facts).

Individual. The individual is the larger entity that includes the self, the de-personalized (nonself) aspects of the mind, and the body. Thus, it is the individual who has depersonalized knowledge about biology (e.g., a robin has wings) and who possesses cognitive skills (e.g., can carry out long division), motor skills (e.g., can ride a bicycle), and rote skills (e.g., can recite Lincoln's Gettysburg Address)."


Calleja, G. (2014). Immersion in virtual worlds. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality (pp. 222–236). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:21:52 PM
      Calleja favors the term incorporation over immersion or presence because the latter two "are defined by their discontinuity from the real physical world [whereas] incorporation occurs [when playing a computer game, for example] when the game world is present to the player while simultaneously the player is present, via an avatar, to the virtual environment."
      Calleja's main bone of contention with concepts such as immersion and presence is that they imply that the user of a virtual environment is "merely a subjective consciousness being poured into the containing vessel of the virtual environment."
      For incorporation to occur, the medium must "specifically acknowledge the player's presence and agency within the virtual world."
      "while high-fidelity systems are an important part of enhancing the intensity of an experience, they do not themselves create a sense of presence."
Campbell, D. T. (1974). Evolutionary epistemology. In P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), The Philosophy of Karl Popper Vol. XIV Book 1, (pp. 413–463). La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11/15/2018 01:15:11 PM
      "Perceived solidity is not illusory for its ordinary uses: what it diagnoses is one of the "surfaces" modern physics also describes. But when reified as exclusive, when creating expectations of opaqueness and impermeability to all types of probes, it becomes illusory."
      "Biological theories of evolution [...] are profoundly committed to an organism-environment dualism, which when extended into the evolution of sense organ, perceptual and learning functions, becomes a dualism of an organism's knowledge of the environment versus the environment itself."
Carpenter, E., & McLuhan, M. (1970). Acoustic space. In E. Carpenter & M. McLuhan (Eds), Explorations in Communication (pp. 65–70). London: Jonathan Cape.  
Added by: sirfragalot 01/07/2017 11:56:06 AM
      "Auditory space has no favored focus. It's a sphere without fixed boundaries, space made by the thing itself, not space containing the thing."
      "Auditory space has no boundaries in the visual sense [...] There is nothing in auditory space corresponding to the vanishing point in visual perspective [...] auditory space lacks the precision of visual orientation."
      "pure visual space is flat, about 180 degrees, while pure acoustic space is spherical. Perspective translated into visual terms the depths of acoustic space."
Chertoff, D. B., Schatz, S. L., McDaniel, R., & Bowers, C. A. (2008). Improving presence theory through experiential design. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 405–413.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/27/2018 04:27:00 PM  Mat. 10/10
      "Current virtual environments are primarily conceptualized as information technologies, while they should instead be considered "knowledge technologies"."
      "presence is an emergent factor due to the interaction of many components [...] it is a result that is greater than the sum of its parts."
      Proposes 5 dimensions to presence (dimensions come from experience design theories):
  • sensory – sensory input and perceptions (VR: hardware and software)
  • cognitive – mental engagement (VR: task engagement [motivation, meaningfulness, continuity])
  • affective – emotional state (VR: emotions in VR mimic emotions in same RW scenario?)
  • active – personal connection, incorporation into personal narrative (VR: empathy, avatar identification etc.)
  • relational – social aspects (VR: co-experience and collaborative experience of VR)
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 06/07/2021 08:48:33 AM
      "Of two war reports that come back from a very real war, the one in which the image is shaky and rough, with uneven focus and other "mistakes," will seem more true than the one with impeccable framing, perfect visibility, and imperceptible grain. In much the same way for sound, the impression of realism is often tied to a feeling of discomfort, of an uneven signal, of interference and microphone noise, etc."
Dennett, D. C. (1978). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:21:37 PM
      Talking of workers manipulating mechanical arms (viz. teleoperation): "They know perfectly well where they are and are not fooled into false beliefs by the experience, yet it is as if they were inside the isolation chamber they are peering into. With mental effort, they can manage to shift their point of view back and forth, rather like making a transparent Neckar cube or an Escher drawing change orientation before one's eyes. It does seem extravagent to suppose that in performing this bit of mental gymnastics, they are transporting themselves back and forth." (italics in original)
Ellis, S. R. (1996). Presence of mind: A reaction to Thomas Sheridan's "further musings on the psychophysics of presence". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(2), 247–259.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 07/26/2018 10:46:56 AM
      "A clear meaning for virtual as used in this paper may be based on a more general concept: virtualization, which can be considered the process by which a viewer interprets patterned sensory impressions to represent objects in an environment other than that from which the impressions physically originate."
      "one could consider the normal functioning of the human sensory systems as the special case in which the detection of physical energy and the interpretation of patterned sensory impressions result in the perception of real objects in the surrounding physical environment. In this respect perception of the physical environment resolves to the case in which through a process of systematic doubt, it is impossible for an observer to refute the hypothesis that the apparent source of sensory stimulus is indeed its physical source."
      "As more and more sources of sensory information and envrionmental control are available, the process of virtualization  [...] can be more and more complete until the resulting impression is indistinguishable from physical reality"
      Discussing how measurements of aspects of "a virtual environment display convince its users that they are present in a synthetic world"
      In suggesting that interface performance in virtual environments  can be improved by decreasing presence, Ellis suggests removing or controlling the realism of spatial information.
Flach, J. M., & Holden, J. G. (1998). The reality of experience: Gibson's way. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(1), 90–95.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/11/2018 05:21:24 PM
      Re Gibson, "action takes precedence. The experience depends more on what can be "done" than on the quality of visual or acoustic images."
      "in the design of experiences in virtual environments the constraints on action take precedence over the constraints on perception."
      "the reality of experience (i.e. presence or immersion)."
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