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Abbate, C. (2004). Music: Drastic or gnostic? Critical Inquiry, 30(3), 505–536.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/11/20, 4:57 PM

"Real music is a temporal event with material presence that can be held by no hand. So why assume that musical sound made in time by the labor of performance is well served by recourse to a philosophical tradition that indeed deconstructs presence, but does so easily because it traffics exclusively in metaphysical objects? [paraphrasing and quoting Gumbrecht:] a critical discourse accounting for the “movement, immediacy, and violence” in events being “born to presence” prove more fertile. What Gumbrecht calls meaning culture and presence culture do not gain legitimacy by excluding each other. One of them is perpetually in danger of appearing illegitimate in the academy—presence culture. Yet meaning culture—scholarship’s privileged culture—is inadequate to deal with certain aesthetic phenomena, events like performed music in particular."

See Gumbrecht, “Form without Matter vs. Form as Event,” pp. 586–87. Here too, as in Jankélévitch, a hint of medieval theology makes an appearance.

See also for more on meaning culture and presence culture (Gumbrecht 2004).

Gumbrecht, H. U. (2004). Production of presence: What meaning cannot convey. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Abram, D. (2017). The spell of the sensuous: Perception and language in a more-than-human world. New York: Vintage Books. (Original work published 1997).   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/13/23, 12:28 PM
Following Merleau-Ponty, Abram acknowledges the primacy of the body in fashioning a self by engaging with other selves and with space. Yes, perhaps there is something genetically dictated in our behaviours but, like the spider spinning a web, these genetic 'programs' must also interact with the present through its bodily sensing of the terrain, and its specific features and dimensions, in which the web must be spun. "[T]he genome could not explicitly have commanded the order of every flexion and extension of her various limbs as she weaves this web into its place. However complex are the inherited "programs," patterns, or predispositions, they must still be adapted to the immediate situation in which the spider finds itself. However determinate one's genetic inheritance, it must still, as it were, be woven into the present, an activity that necessarily involves both a receptivity to the specific shapes and textures of that present and a spontansous creativity in adjusting oneself (and one's inheritance) to those contours. It is this open activity, this dynamic blend of receptivity and creativity by which every animate organism necessarily orients itself to the world (and orients the world around itself), that we speak of by the term "perception"."
Discussing the participatory nature of perception through the analogy of a magician using sleight of hand on a coin: "he uses his sleights to enhance the animation of the object, generating ambiguous gaps and lacunae in the visible trajectory of the coin. The spectators' eyes, already drawn by the coin's fluid dance across the magician's fingers, spontaneously fill in those gaps with impossible events, and it is this spontaneous involvement of the spectators' own senses that enables the coin to vanish and reappear, or to pass through the magician's hand [...] The perceiving body does not calculate logical possibilities; it gregariously participates in the activity of the world, lending its imagination to things in order to see them more fully."
Anzieu, D. (1989). The skin ego: A psychoanalytical approach to the self. C. Turner, Trans. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/18/23, 7:18 AM
Citing number of studies of babies, these "suggest that mental capacities operate first on acoustic material [the suggestion] that the differentiations of gestures and mimicry [...] are at the root of social communication and mental representation, comes to seem improbable. It appears that feedback loops with the environment are formed much earlier in the baby. These are audio-phonological in nature"
"the Self forms as a sound envelope through the experience of a bath of sounds [...] This sound-bath prefigures the Skin Ego with its double face, one half turned towards the outer world, the other towards the inner, since the sound envelope is composed of sounds emitted either by the baby or the environment. The combination of these sounds therefore produces (a) a common space-volume permitting bilateral exchange [...] (b) a first (spatio-auditory) image of one's own body"
Barfield, W. (2016). Musings on Presence twenty-five years after "Being There". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 148–150.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/8/19, 11:15 AM
"we particularly need more studies on how the nonvisual modalities (e.g. haptic, gustatory, auditory, smell) affect the sense of presence"
Barfield, W., & Weghorst, S. 1993, August 8–13, The sense of presence within virtual environments: A conceptual framework. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Amsterdam.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/18, 5:22 PM
Proposes a number of factors influencing presence in VEs (virtual presence):
  • display fidelity
  • environmental stability
  • sensory bandwidth (phenomenal richness)
  • interactive fidelity
  • person variables
  • task variables
  • context variables


"Virtual presence is generally conceived of as a hypothetical subjective state of awareness and involvement in a non-present environment."
Proposes a number of psychphysiological means to assess presence.
Attempting to assess presence: "we might expect a performance decrement on concurrent tasks defined solely in the natural environment. And when natural and virtual frames of reference call for conflicting responses, the direction of resolution of the conflict may also serve as an indicator of the degree of presence within each. Furthermore, as the sense of presence increases, the attentional resoures allocated to the objects or tasks performed in the virtual environment should increase. Therefore, we postulate that as the sense of presence increases, the virtual environment participant will pay less attention to sensory input external to the virtual environment."
Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T. B., & Slater, M. (1995). Presence and performance within virtual environments. In W. Barfield & T. A. Furness III (Eds), Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design (pp. 473–513). New York: Oxford University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/6/20, 9:01 AM
The authors base their definition of presence in virtual environments (being there) on presence in non-virtual or real worlds and take this foundational definition from Webster's: ""Presence" generally refers to the sense of being present in time or space at a particular location"
"An important point to emphasize is that it is necessary for attentional resources to be directed to stimulus information before the sense of presence can occur."
Note that presence can occur when only a subset of sensory modalities are engaged. Claim that many VEs "successfully invoke presence" via auditory and visual modalities only.
Benyon, D., Smyth, M., O'Neill, S., McCall, R., & Carroll, F. (2006). The place probe: Exploring a sense of place in real and virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6), 668–687.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/16/18, 3:17 PM
"the sense of presence requires a body; it is not just a mental construct."
Berry, C. (1987). The actor and his text. London: Harrap.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/14/20, 3:34 PM
"...our voice is our sound presence, and is the means by which we commit our private world to the world outside"
Blumenberg, H. (1983). The legitimacy of the modern age. R. M. Wallace, Trans. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/18/21, 12:32 PM
"the discovery of the telescope signifies a caesura, beyond which a continuous increase in accessible reality could be anticipated"
Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the feeling of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 376–391.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/14/20, 3:36 PM
Suggest that there is a limit to the linear equation between increasing sophistication of immersive technology/level of realism and development of presence.
Not only external factors but also "psychological states and appraisal patterns of users might also affect presence."
Brainard, F. S. (1997). Reality and mystical experience. Unpublished PhD thesis, Temple University.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/4/20, 3:05 PM
"'presence' is perhaps more accurately thought of as a verb than a noun. It is rather the process that manifests — 'presences' — properties."
"Humans presence those things particular to human beings — languages, political borders, artifacts, and so on. Animals presence what is particular to their own natures. So do plants. And matter presences material publicities. Presencing taken as a noun — as a presence — is thus a spatiotemporal site of publicity instantiation. Since in this schema, all publicity, even material regularities, originate with awarenesses, a presence may also be characterized as a site for the publicity producing activity of awarenesses."
"presence is defined as that which when conjoined to publicity yields a particular. It may also be defined as the process (verb) that renders publicity to be a particular [...] presence in this project also means the fact or condition of being manifest to or by awarenesses"
"a particular is a singular instantiation, thus an individual"
"The term 'publicity', derived from the word 'public', already exists in epistemology and refers to that which is the same for a group of knowing subjects — that which is singular for a plurality of awarenesses."
"awareness applies not just to a capability or to a receptive 'knowing', but also to intention and action as well [...] awareness applies not just to sentient agencies but also to certain non-sentient ones (i.e., the maintenance of physical regularities by matter). In this schema, awareness is defined on the basis of its roles in the definitions for publicity and presence. In the case of publicity, it names that which originates and maintains publicity, regardless of any other considerations."
"presence is not, itself a publicity [...] description is never the presence itself; it only refers to presence."
Brewer, W. F. (1986). What is autobiographical memory? In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Autobiographical memory (pp. 25–49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/14/20, 8:37 AM

"I intend to argue that the self is composed of an experiencing ego, a self-schema, and an associated set of personal memories and autobiographical facts.

Ego. By ego I mean the conscious experiencing entity that is the focus of our phenomenal experience. The ego is the aspect of a person that experiences things from the "inside." The ego is the conscious aspect of the mind that moves through space and time. It is the memory for the ego's moment-to-moment experience that we call personal memories.

Self-schema. The self-schema is the cognitive structure that contains generic knowledge about the self. In the same way that individuals have knowledge about the solar system or knowledge about Walter Cronkite, individuals have knowledge about themselves. This knowledge is presumably organized into unconscious mental structures that interact with incoming information about the self (Brewer & Nakamura, 1984; Rumelhart, 1980). Some of the information that goes into making up the self-schema is private and available only to the self; other information is public and available to an observer. The self-schema must be one of the richer knowledge structures in an individual's long-term memory; hence, once it has developed, it probably changes only slowly, thus providing consistency to the self over time.

Self. The self is the complex mental structure that includes the ego, the self-schema, and portions of long-term memory related to the ego-self (e.g., personal memories, generic personal memories, and autobiographical facts).

Individual. The individual is the larger entity that includes the self, the de-personalized (nonself) aspects of the mind, and the body. Thus, it is the individual who has depersonalized knowledge about biology (e.g., a robin has wings) and who possesses cognitive skills (e.g., can carry out long division), motor skills (e.g., can ride a bicycle), and rote skills (e.g., can recite Lincoln's Gettysburg Address)."


Burroughs, E. R. (2021). Tarzan of the apes. Project Gutenberg. (Original work published 1914).   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/30/22, 12:26 PM
“Before dark the barkentine lay peacefully at anchor upon the bosom of the still, mirror-like surface of the harbor . . . From the dark shadows of the mighty forest came the wild calls of savage beasts—the deep roar of the lion, and, occasionally, the shrill scream of a panther. The woman shrank closer to the man in terror-stricken anticipation of the horrors lying in wait for them in the awful blackness of the nights to come, when they should be alone upon that wild and lonely shore.”
“Scarcely had they closed their eyes than the terrifying cry of a panther rang out from the jungle behind them.”
“During the long hours of darkness they caught but fitful snatches of sleep, for the night noises of a great jungle teeming with myriad animal life kept their overwrought nerves on edge, so that a hundred times they were startled to wakefulness by piercing screams, or the stealthy moving of great bodies beneath them.”
“At night great beasts snarled and roared about their tiny cabin, but, so accustomed may one become to oft repeated noises, that soon they paid little attention to them, sleeping soundly the whole night through.”
“One afternoon, while Clayton was working upon an addition to their cabin, for he contemplated building several more rooms, a number of their grotesque little friends came shrieking and scolding through the trees from the direction of the ridge. Ever as they fled they cast fearful glances back of them, and finally they stopped near Clayton jabbering excitedly to him as though to warn him of approaching danger.”
“It was approaching through the jungle in a semi-erect position, now and then placing the backs of its closed fists upon the ground—a great anthropoid ape, and, as it advanced, it emitted deep guttural growls and an occasional low barking sound.”
“That night a little son was born in the tiny cabin beside the primeval forest, while a leopard screamed before the door, and the deep notes of a lion’s roar sounded from beyond the ridge.”
“For a long time no sound broke the deathlike stillness of the jungle midday save the piteous wailing of the tiny man-child.”
“With a wild scream he was upon her, tearing a great piece from her side with his mighty teeth, and striking her viciously upon her head and shoulders with a broken tree limb until her skull was crushed to a jelly.”
“He had seen many of his kind go to their deaths before the loud noise made by the little black stick in the hands of the strange white ape who lived in that wonderful lair, and Kerchak had made up his brute mind to own that death-dealing contrivance, and to explore the interior of the mysterious den.”
“There were no growls, no fierce screams of rage—the little black stick had taught them to come quietly lest they awaken it.”
“As she took up the little live baby of Alice Clayton she dropped the dead body of her own into the empty cradle; for the wail of the living had answered the call of universal motherhood within her wild breast which the dead could not still.
High up among the branches of a mighty tree she hugged the shrieking infant to her bosom, and soon the instinct that was as dominant in this fierce female as it had been in the breast of his tender and beautiful mother—the instinct of mother love—reached out to the tiny man-child’s half-formed understanding, and he became quiet.”
“Cautiously he approached the thing, ready to flee precipitately should it speak in its deep roaring tones, as he had heard it speak before, the last words to those of his kind who, through ignorance or rashness, had attacked the wonderful white ape that had borne it.”
“Using his long arms as a man uses crutches, and rolling his huge carcass from side to side with each stride, the great king ape paced to and fro, uttering deep growls, occasionally punctuated with the ear-piercing scream, than which there is no more terrifying noise in all the jungle.”
“Those of the apes who attempted to examine Kala’s strange baby were repulsed with bared fangs and low menacing growls, accompanied by words of warning from Kala.”
“An instant she paused thus, as though turned to stone, and then, with an awful scream, she sprang.
Sabor, the lioness, was a wise hunter. To one less wise the wild alarm of her fierce cry as she sprang would have seemed a foolish thing, for could she not more surely have fallen upon her victims had she but quietly leaped without that loud shriek?”
“Her wild scream was not a warning. It was voiced to freeze her poor victims in a paralysis of terror for the tiny fraction of an instant which would suffice for her mighty claws to sink into their soft flesh and hold them beyond hope of escape.”
“The cries of the gorilla proclaimed that it was in mortal combat with some other denizen of the fierce wood. Suddenly these cries ceased, and the silence of death reigned throughout the jungle.”
“Many travelers have seen the drums of the great apes, and some have heard the sounds of their beating and the noise of the wild, weird revelry of these first lords of the jungle, but Tarzan, Lord Greystoke, is, doubtless, the only human being who ever joined in the fierce, mad, intoxicating revel of the Dum-Dum.”
“As the light in the amphitheater increased the females augmented the frequency and force of their blows until presently a wild, rhythmic din pervaded the great jungle for miles in every direction. Huge, fierce brutes stopped in their hunting, with up-pricked ears and raised heads, to listen to the dull booming that betokened the Dum-Dum of the apes.”
“Occasionally one would raise his shrill scream or thunderous roar in answering challenge to the savage din of the anthropoids, but none came near to investigate or attack, for the great apes, assembled in all the power of their numbers, filled the breasts of their jungle neighbors with deep respect.”
“Standing erect he threw his head far back and looking full into the eye of the rising moon he beat upon his breast with his great hairy paws and emitted his fearful roaring shriek.”
“One—twice—thrice that terrifying cry rang out across the teeming solitude of that unspeakably quick, yet unthinkably dead, world.”
“Another male then sprang into the arena, and, repeating the horrid cries of his king, followed stealthily in his wake. Another and another followed in quick succession until the jungle reverberated with the now almost ceaseless notes of their bloodthirsty screams.”
“Kerchak, seizing a huge club from the pile which lay at hand for the purpose, rushed furiously upon the dead ape, dealing the corpse a terrific blow, at the same time emitting the growls and snarls of combat.”
“As the noise and rapidity of the drumbeats increased the dancers apparently became intoxicated with the wild rhythm and the savage yells.”
“With horrifying screams and roars he rushed to the ground, among the females and young, sinking his great fangs into a dozen tiny necks and tearing great pieces from the backs and breasts of the females who fell into his clutches.”
“As the body rolled to the ground Tarzan of the Apes placed his foot upon the neck of his lifelong enemy and, raising his eyes to the full moon, threw back his fierce young head and voiced the wild and terrible cry of his people.”
“Looking full into the wicked, red eyes of Kerchak, the young Lord Greystoke beat upon his mighty breast and screamed out once more his shrill cry of defiance.”
“With back-laid ears she looked straight into the eyes of Tarzan of the Apes and sounded her fierce, shrill challenge.”
“Screaming with rage she suddenly charged, leaping high into the air toward Tarzan, but when her huge body struck the limb on which Tarzan had been, Tarzan was no longer there.”
“That he joyed in killing, and that he killed with a joyous laugh upon his handsome lips betokened no innate cruelty.”
“As he was trying to think out some plan to distract her attention he heard a wild cry from across the clearing.”
“Tarzan of the Apes felt of each article, hefted the spears, smelled of them, for he “saw” largely through his sensitive and highly trained nostrils.”
“But now he heard, outside, the sounds of many voices, and long mournful howls, and mighty wailing.”
“Behind trailed the women, uttering strange cries and weird lamentation.”
“The circle of warriors about the cringing captive drew closer and closer to their prey as they danced in wild and savage abandon to the maddening music of the drums.”
“With swelling breast, he placed a foot upon the body of his powerful enemy, and throwing back his fine young head, roared out the awful challenge of the victorious bull ape.
The forest echoed to the savage and triumphant paean.”
“Frothing and shrieking in the insanity of his fury, Kerchak looked about for the object of his greatest hatred, and there, upon a near-by limb, he saw him sitting.”
“Come down, Tarzan, great killer,” cried Kerchak. “Come down and feel the fangs of a greater! Do mighty fighters fly to the trees at the first approach of danger?” And then Kerchak emitted the volleying challenge of his kind.”
“As his antagonist came roaring toward him, Lord Greystoke tore his long knife from its sheath, and with an answering challenge as horrid and bloodcurdling as that of the beast he faced, rushed swiftly to meet the attack.”
“Withdrawing the knife that had so often rendered him master of far mightier muscles than his own, Tarzan of the Apes placed his foot upon the neck of his vanquished enemy, and once again, loud through the forest rang the fierce, wild cry of the conqueror.”
“Now was the quiet, fierce solitude of the primeval forest broken by new, strange cries. No longer was there safety for bird or beast. Man had come.”
“The tribe was feeding quietly, spread over a considerable area, when a great screaming arose some distance east of where Tarzan lay upon his belly beside a limpid brook, attempting to catch an elusive fish in his quick, brown hands.
With one accord the tribe swung rapidly toward the frightened cries, and there found Terkoz holding an old female by the hair and beating her unmercifully with his great hands.”
“Again Mirando’s shrill cry of mortal terror had caused them to look back, and there they had seen the most horrible sight—their companion’s body flying upwards into the trees, his arms and legs beating the air and his tongue protruding from his open mouth. No other sound did he utter nor was there any creature in sight about him.”
“What was that?
His quick ear had caught a faint but unfamiliar sound.”
“The watchers in the cabin by the beach heard the sound of his voice growing ever fainter and fainter, until at last it was swallowed up by the myriad noises of the primeval wood.”
“It was Sheeta, the leopard. Now, Tarzan heard the soft bending of grasses and wondered why the young white man was not warned. Could it be he had failed to note the loud warning?”
“No, the white man did not hear. Sheeta was crouching for the spring, and then, shrill and horrible, there rose from the stillness of the jungle the awful cry of the challenging ape, and Sheeta turned, crashing into the underbrush.”
“Clayton came to his feet with a start. His blood ran cold. Never in all his life had so fearful a sound smote upon his ears.”
“The noise of some great body crashing through the underbrush so close beside him, and the sound of that bloodcurdling shriek from above, tested Clayton’s courage to the limit; but he could not know that it was to that very voice he owed his life, nor that the creature who hurled it forth was his own cousin—the real Lord Greystoke.”
“Clayton heard the great body paralleling his course, and now there rose upon the evening air the beast’s thunderous roar. The man stopped with upraised spear and faced the brush from which issued the awful sound.”
“With a roar of pain and anger the beast sprang”
“Then the strange figure which had vanquished it stood erect upon the carcass, and throwing back the wild and handsome head, gave out the fearsome cry which a few moments earlier had so startled Clayton.”
“Again Clayton attempted speech with the ape-man; but the replies, now vocal, were in a strange tongue, which resembled the chattering of monkeys mingled with the growling of some wild beast.”
“The Englishman, finally concluding that he was a prisoner, saw no alternative open but to accompany his captor, and thus they traveled slowly through the jungle while the sable mantle of the impenetrable forest night fell about them, and the stealthy footfalls of padded paws mingled with the breaking of twigs and the wild calls of the savage life that Clayton felt closing in upon him.”
“She feared not more for herself than for the three men whom she knew to be wandering in the abysmal depths of the savage jungle, from which she now heard issuing the almost incessant shrieks and roars, barkings and growlings of its terrifying and fearsome denizens as they sought their prey.”
“And now there came the sound of a heavy body brushing against the side of the cabin. She could hear the great padded paws upon the ground outside. For an instant, all was silence; even the bedlam of the forest died to a faint murmur. Then she distinctly heard the beast outside sniffing at the door, not two feet from where she crouched.”
“Esmeralda, cowering still closer to her mistress, took one frightened glance toward the little square of moonlight, just as the lioness emitted a low, savage snarl.”
“For fully twenty minutes the brute alternately sniffed and tore at the door, occasionally giving voice to a wild, savage cry of baffled rage.”
“There was a flash of flame, the roar of the discharge, and an answering roar of pain and anger from the beast.”
“Presently they came to the clearing before the beach. Tarzan’s quick ears had heard the strange sounds of Sabor’s efforts to force her way through the lattice, and it seemed to Clayton that they dropped a straight hundred feet to earth, so quickly did Tarzan descend.”
“Sabor emitted a frightful shriek.”
“In an instant Tarzan was upon his feet, and for the second time that day Clayton heard the bull ape’s savage roar of victory.”
“What was that awful noise?” she whispered, shrinking close to him.
“It was the cry of the kill from the throat of the man who has just saved your life, Miss Porter. Wait, I will fetch him so you may thank him.”
“What a frightful sound!” cried Jane, “I shudder at the mere thought of it. Do not tell me that a human throat voiced that hideous and fearsome shriek.”
“Savage beasts roared and growled; noises, hideous and weird, assailed their ears.”
“Just then it occurred to Tarzan of the Apes that Numa had loitered beneath the tree for a sufficient length of time, so he raised his young head toward the heavens, and there rang out upon the terrified ears of the two old men the awful warning challenge of the anthropoid.”
“For a moment they swayed uncertainly, and then, with mingled and most unscholarly shrieks, they pitched headlong from the tree, locked in frenzied embrace.”
“As he stood, straight as a young Indian, by the door, waiting after he had finished the message, there came to his keen ears a familiar sound. It was the passing of a great ape through the lower branches of the forest.
For an instant he listened intently, and then from the jungle came the agonized scream of a woman, and Tarzan of the Apes, dropping his first love letter upon the ground, shot like a panther into the forest.”
“One piercing scream escaped her lips as the brute hand clutched her arm”
“Esmeralda’s scream of terror had mingled once with that of Jane, and then, as was Esmeralda’s manner under stress of emergency which required presence of mind, she swooned.”
“Early the following morning the four within the little cabin by the beach were awakened by the booming of a cannon.”
"Every sound she magnified into the stealthy creeping of a sinuous and malignant body.”
“From far in the distance came the faint sound of many guns. Tarzan and Jane raised their heads.”
“The groans of the wounded, mingled with the roaring and growling of the great beasts which the noise and firelight had attracted, kept sleep, except in its most fitful form, from the tired eyes.”
“They hurried him along, the sounds of battle growing fainter and fainter as they drew away from the contestants until there suddenly broke upon D’Arnot’s vision a good-sized clearing at one end of which stood a thatched and palisaded village.”
“He was a brave man, but he had felt the short hairs bristle upon the nape of his neck when that uncanny cry rose upon the air.”
“At length the signal came—a sharp rattle of musketry, and like one man, an answering volley tore from the jungle to the west and to the south.”
“Sentries were posted at the barred gates, and finally the village was wrapped in the silence of slumber, except for the wailing of the native women for their dead.”
“The incessant hum of the jungle—the rustling of millions of leaves—the buzz of insects—the voices of the birds and monkeys seemed blended into a strangely soothing purr, as though he lay apart, far from the myriad life whose sounds came to him only as a blurred echo.”
“I hoped I’d never have to sleep in this here geological garden another night and listen to all them lonesome noises that come out of that jumble after dark.”
“I’m afraid I’d be a blooming bounder as a wild man,” laughed Clayton, ruefully. “Those noises at night make the hair on my head bristle. I suppose that I should be ashamed to admit it, but it’s the truth.”
“I don’t know about that,” said Lieutenant Charpentier. “I never thought much about fear and that sort of thing—never tried to determine whether I was a coward or brave man; but the other night as we lay in the jungle there after poor D’Arnot was taken, and those jungle noises rose and fell around us I began to think that I was a coward indeed. It was not the roaring and growling of the big beasts that affected me so much as it was the stealthy noises—the ones that you heard suddenly close by and then listened vainly for a repetition of—the unaccountable sounds as of a great body moving almost noiselessly, and the knowledge that you didn’t KNOW how close it was, or whether it were creeping closer after you ceased to hear it? It was those noises—and the eyes.”
“Gradually he became accustomed to the strange noises and the odd ways of civilization, so that presently none might know that two short months before, this handsome Frenchman in immaculate white ducks, who laughed and chatted with the gayest of them, had been swinging naked through primeval forests to pounce upon some unwary victim, which, raw, was to fill his savage belly.”
“Just then the deep roar of a lion sounded from the distant jungle, as though to challenge whoever dared enter the lists with him.”
“Then with his foot upon the carcass of Numa, he raised his voice in the awesome victory cry of his savage tribe.”
“God! What was that?” suddenly cried one of the party, an Englishman, as Tarzan’s savage cry came faintly to their ears.”
“D’Arnot remembered Clayton’s description of the awful roar with which Tarzan had announced his kills, and he half smiled in spite of the horror which filled him to think that the uncanny sound could have issued from a human throat—from the lips of his friend.”
“He did not press the matter further, but if ever a man had murder in his heart it was William Cecil Clayton, Lord Greystoke, when, a week later, Robert Canler drew up before the farmhouse in his purring six cylinder.”
“At the sight of Jane, cries of relief and delight broke from every lip, and as Tarzan’s car stopped beside the other, Professor Porter caught his daughter in his arms.”
Calleja, G. (2014). Immersion in virtual worlds. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality (pp. 222–236). New York: Oxford University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/18, 5:21 PM
Calleja favors the term incorporation over immersion or presence because the latter two "are defined by their discontinuity from the real physical world [whereas] incorporation occurs [when playing a computer game, for example] when the game world is present to the player while simultaneously the player is present, via an avatar, to the virtual environment."
Calleja's main bone of contention with concepts such as immersion and presence is that they imply that the user of a virtual environment is "merely a subjective consciousness being poured into the containing vessel of the virtual environment."
For incorporation to occur, the medium must "specifically acknowledge the player's presence and agency within the virtual world."
"while high-fidelity systems are an important part of enhancing the intensity of an experience, they do not themselves create a sense of presence."
Campbell, D. T. (1974). Evolutionary epistemology. In P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), The Philosophy of Karl Popper Vol. XIV Book 1, (pp. 413–463). La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/15/18, 1:15 PM
"Perceived solidity is not illusory for its ordinary uses: what it diagnoses is one of the "surfaces" modern physics also describes. But when reified as exclusive, when creating expectations of opaqueness and impermeability to all types of probes, it becomes illusory."
"Biological theories of evolution [...] are profoundly committed to an organism-environment dualism, which when extended into the evolution of sense organ, perceptual and learning functions, becomes a dualism of an organism's knowledge of the environment versus the environment itself."
Carpenter, E., & McLuhan, M. (1970). Acoustic space. In E. Carpenter & M. McLuhan (Eds), Explorations in Communication (pp. 65–70). London: Jonathan Cape.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/7/17, 11:56 AM
"Auditory space has no favored focus. It's a sphere without fixed boundaries, space made by the thing itself, not space containing the thing."
"Auditory space has no boundaries in the visual sense [...] There is nothing in auditory space corresponding to the vanishing point in visual perspective [...] auditory space lacks the precision of visual orientation."
"pure visual space is flat, about 180 degrees, while pure acoustic space is spherical. Perspective translated into visual terms the depths of acoustic space."
Chertoff, D. B., Schatz, S. L., McDaniel, R., & Bowers, C. A. (2008). Improving presence theory through experiential design. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 405–413.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/27/18, 4:27 PM  Mat.  10/10
"Current virtual environments are primarily conceptualized as information technologies, while they should instead be considered "knowledge technologies"."
"presence is an emergent factor due to the interaction of many components [...] it is a result that is greater than the sum of its parts."
Proposes 5 dimensions to presence (dimensions come from experience design theories):
  • sensory – sensory input and perceptions (VR: hardware and software)
  • cognitive – mental engagement (VR: task engagement [motivation, meaningfulness, continuity])
  • affective – emotional state (VR: emotions in VR mimic emotions in same RW scenario?)
  • active – personal connection, incorporation into personal narrative (VR: empathy, avatar identification etc.)
  • relational – social aspects (VR: co-experience and collaborative experience of VR)
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen. C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/7/21, 8:48 AM
"Of two war reports that come back from a very real war, the one in which the image is shaky and rough, with uneven focus and other "mistakes," will seem more true than the one with impeccable framing, perfect visibility, and imperceptible grain. In much the same way for sound, the impression of realism is often tied to a feeling of discomfort, of an uneven signal, of interference and microphone noise, etc."
Clowes, R. W., & Chrisley, R. (2012). Virtualist representation. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 4(2), 503–522.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/6/23, 2:37 PM
"Take the idea of telepresence, for instance, which was strange and new when described by Howard Rheingold back in 1991."
"Interfaces in standard VR can be viewed as modes of coupling with the (virtual) environment that transform an already existing sensed-embodiment. To put this another way, in the original context presence is assumed (perhaps as produced by unconscious neural mechanisms) and then, through an interactive interface, presence is "projected" into a virtual world."
As an example of presentational virtualism: "But in dreams, our sense of presence assuming we have such     can only be explained by the "projections" of the brain. In essence, Revonsuo is arguing that, as presence can be experienced in the absence of dynamic world coupling, such coupling cannot be necessary for (the experience of) presence. His conclusion is that being-in-the-world, and the experience of presence even in normal configurations, is virtual."
"In its unelaborated form, presentational virtualism faces several traditional problems. First, the position is internalist to an extent that appears to put us radically out of touch with the world, in familiar ways. For those acquainted with the history of the philosophy of perception, it is hard to resist seeing this kind of virtualism as an old, discredited theory of perception — the indirect theory — in modern technological guise. On this picture, virtualism is advocating that: (1) when we are dreaming there is no further reality beyond the virtual, dreamed reality for our experiences to be of, so they are of the virtual objects, properties, etc., that constitute that virtual world; and therefore, in the same way, (2) when we are not dreaming, our experiences are not of a further, external world to which we have no access, but are again of virtual objects, properties, etc., that constitute a virtual world (those created by the neural "interface", which is the same, after all as the "interface" in operation during dreaming) that we merely take to be an actual world."
"The key components of the sophisticated presentationalist view are crucially disanalogous with what is going on in the use of virtual reality technology. When we use such technology, we exercise the very same perceptual processes when we are wearing the VR gear as when we are not."
"VR technology parasitizes the pre-existing, biologically endowed (in our case) sensory capacities of an autonomous subject to create an experience of a virtual world, a world whose virtuality is defined relative to the actuality of the world made available by the preexisting sensory system."
"the virtualist is asking us to simultaneously employ the VR metaphor and ignore an essential, ineliminable feature
of the source (the use of VR technology by a pre-existing subject) while doing so. For this reason the metaphor (at least in its presentational virtualist form) fails in its attempt to portray a coherent, alternative conception of mind and experience."
Enactive virtualism (after Noë description of perceptual presence): "when we perceive an object, we are only really (occurrently) sensorially in touch with a small part of what we perceive or see, but nevertheless the whole object is perceptually (but virtually) present to us."
"How is sensory contact actualized in such a way that perceptual experience is generated?
      This actualization process happens, in all versions of Noë's theory, through acting. Put slightly differently, and in the terminology that Noë favors, perceptual content is given through occurrent deployment of our mastery of sensorimotor dependencies (originally contingencies [...]; that is, very roughly, the way that sensory information follows or frustrates our expectations that arises out of our mastery of sensorimotor flow. Perceptual presence on this analysis arises because of the mastery of dependencies we acquire as we move around and interact with objects. Perceptual presence for Noë is to be explained, like perceptual content itself, from our mastery of the laws of sensorimotor dependence."
"For Noë, perception is actional or enactive but is also in a certain sense projected. What we experience is not what is simply given in our occurrent sensorimotor contact but what is somehow generated in that contact. Perceptual content is generated because we are constantly in touch with the world."
"presentational virtualism holds that that the content of our experiences is virtual and perception is, in an important sense, similar to hallucination because it is ultimately internal perceptual vehicles that we perceive rather than the external worldly objects they represent. In contrast, enactive representationalism sees us as being in deep contact with the world, but at the "price" of conceiving of our representational systems as partly composed by the world. We have seen that the former trades on di±culties with the metaphor of virtuality itself while the latter tends to commit us to problematic views: either the Grand Illusion or the idea that external world contributes to perceptual content independently of our sensory contact with it."
Dennett, D. C. (1978). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/18, 5:21 PM
Talking of workers manipulating mechanical arms (viz. teleoperation): "They know perfectly well where they are and are not fooled into false beliefs by the experience, yet it is as if they were inside the isolation chamber they are peering into. With mental effort, they can manage to shift their point of view back and forth, rather like making a transparent Neckar cube or an Escher drawing change orientation before one's eyes. It does seem extravagent to suppose that in performing this bit of mental gymnastics, they are transporting themselves back and forth." (italics in original)
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