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Keyword:  Definition of sound
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Accredited Standards Committee S1, Acoustics. (2013). Acoustic terminology: ANSI/ASA S1.1-2013 (ANSI)Melville, NY: Acoustical Society of America.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 5/3/21, 2:36 PM
      Sound is: "(a) Oscillation in pressure, stress, particle displacement, particle velocity etc., propagated in a medium with internal forces (e.g. elastic or viscous) or the superposition of such propagated oscillation" or the "(b) Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in (a)."

The definition has the following footnote: "Not all sounds evoke an auditory sensation, e.g., ultrasound or infrasound. Not all auditory sensations are evoked by sound, e.g., tinnitus."

Erlmann, V. (2000). Reason and resonance: A history of modern aurality. New York: Zone Books.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11/27/14, 9:46 AM
      Plato and the atomists thought that sound was a stream of air particles or even "special atoms" issuing from the source.
Hammershøi, D. September 2, 2015. The ANSI definition of sound. [Email]  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 12/7/15, 8:11 AM
      I have made the response a private comment . . .
Howard, D. M., & Angus, J. (1996). Acoustics and psychoacoustics. Oxford: Focal Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 2/10/14, 8:47 AM
      "At a physical level sound is simply a mechanical disturbance of the medium, which may be air, or a solid, liquid or other gas. However, such a simplistic description is not very useful as it provides no information about the way this disturbance travels, or any of its characteristics other than the requirement for a medium in order for it to propagate. What is required is a more accurate description which can be used to make predictions of the behaviour of sound in a variety of contexts."
LaBelle, B. (2006). Background noise: Perspectives on sound art. New York: Continuum.  
Added by: sirfragalot 3/9/14, 12:13 PM
      "sound is always in more than one place. If I make a sound, such as clapping my hands, we hear this sound here, between my palms at the moment of clapping, but also within the room, tucked up into the corners, and immediately reverberating back, to return to the source of the sound."
Locke, J. (1690). An essay concerning human understanding 2nd ed.  
Added by: sirfragalot 5/14/21, 1:58 PM
      "How often may a man observe in himself, that whilst his mind is intently employed in the contemplation of some objects, and curiously surveying some ideas that are there, it takes no notice of impressions of sounding bodies made upon the organ of hearing, with the same alteration that uses to be for the producing the idea of sound? A sufficient impulse there may be on the organ; but it not reaching the observation of the mind, there follows no perception: and though the motion that uses to produce the idea of sound be made in the ear, yet no sound is heard. Want of sensation, in this case, is not through any defect in the organ, or that the man’s ears are less affected than at other times when he does hear: but that which uses to produce the idea, though conveyed in by the usual organ, not being taken notice of in the understanding, and so imprinting no idea in the mind, there follows no sensation."
Lunn, P., & Hunt, A. 2013, July 6–10 Phantom signals: Erroneous perception observed during the audification of radio astronomy data. Paper presented at International Conference on Auditory Display.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11/14/13, 1:11 PM
      The greatest reporting of phantom signals was when no example signals were played beforehand. The authors thus claim that phantom signals are a form of pareidolia (bring order out of chaos, seeing faces in clouds etc.).
Nudds, M. (2009). Sounds and space. In M. Nudds & C. O'Callaghan (Eds), Sounds & Perception (pp. 69–96). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 2/1/14, 12:09 PM
      "sounds are patterns or structures of frequency components instantiated by sound waves"
O'Callaghan, C. (2009). Sounds and events. In M. Nudds & C. O'Callaghan (Eds), Sounds & Perception (pp. 26–49). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 1/27/18, 2:51 PM
      "[T]here is the event of an object or substance setting a medium into periodic motion. This is sound."
Pouliot, D. (2014). Hearing without ears (auditory brainstem implant). Retrieved August 19, 2015, from ... tory-brainstem-implant/  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 2/10/20, 7:57 AM
      "The implant is placed in the wall of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle in the area where the axons (nerve fibres) and cochlear nucleus (synapses)—which transport sounds picked up by the ear to the cerebral cortex—are found."
Revill, G. (2016). How is space made in sound? Spatial mediation, critical phenomenology and the political agency of sound. Progress in Human Geography, 40(2), 240–256.  
Added by: sirfragalot 1/7/17, 4:12 PM

"Starting from Carpenter and McLuhan’s premise, we need to seek the ‘thinginess’ of sound as co-produced by the act or processes of making, the materials which carry and transmit, and the means of receiving, sensing and making sense. Sound is made within the contingent interplay of each of these realms simultaneously."

      Revill is never quite clear what sound is - an event or the sound wave produced by that event? This text, throughout, moves between both. For much of his argument, sound is an event, yet he keeps coming back to sound as sound wave ("the physicality of produced sound waves, the shaping of that sound within the particular circumstances of its occurrence" (p.246).
Riddoch, M. 2012, September 9–14 On the non-cochlearity of the sounds themselves. Paper presented at International Computer Music Conference.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 9/23/20, 9:36 PM
      Riddoch provides a fourth definition of sounds "as first and foremost meaningful, worldly phenomena."
      "The fact that the sounds we hearken to are already meaningful would indicate that the conceptual in sound is not merely an afterthought, an artistic abstraction, or a subjective, psychological construction. The meaningfulness of what we hear is a fundamental aspect of the sounds themselves as we encounter them in the first instance."
      "I would like to propose that there is therefore no such thing as a cochlear sound in any demonstrable empirical sense, there are only in the first instance the sounds themselves we hear and hearken to. By simple inference all sound, as something heard in the world, is therefore non-cochlear (or more precisely a nonphysical phenomenon)."
      Riddoch proposes three types of non-cochlear sound:
  • Synaesthetic -- the perception of sound via stimulation of another sense.
  • Infrasonic sound -- sound waves below 20Hz can be detected by the skin and the chest cavity resonates at 80Hz and below. Riddoch also points to the example of profoundly deaf (from birth) percussionist Evelyn Glennie (1993) who maintains that hearing is a specialized form of touch.
  • Auditory imagination -- including memory, imagination, hallucination, dreaming which all excite the auditory cortex.
Schrimshaw, W. (2013). Non-cochlear sound: On affect and exteriority. In M. Thompson & I. Biddle (Eds), Sound, Music, Affect: Theorizing Sonic Experience (pp. 27–43). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.  
Added by: sirfragalot 1/9/14, 10:03 AM
      Following Deluze and Guattari, Scrimshaw claims the equivalence of sound and affect.
Scruton, R. (2009). Sounds as secondary objects and pure events. In M. Nudds & C. O'Callaghan (Eds), Sounds & Perception (pp. 50–68). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 2/7/14, 2:10 PM
      Sounds are "secondary objects and pure events"
      "we do not attribute the secondary qualities of sounds to the bodies that emit them, nor to events that occur in those bodies"
      A secondary object is "an object all of whose properties are ways in which it feels"
      For Scruton, sounds are secondary objects because they are "a real part of the objective world" and not a mere "subjective impression"
      With an Aristotelean conception of substance, an event is described by the objects taking part in it and the changes undergone by those objects as the event occurs. Thus, such a view of events is that they are "transformations undergone by particulars"
      A pure event does not happen to any thing, it "cannot be reduced to changes undergone by reidentifiable particulars"
      Our natural inclination to describe sounds in terms of their source "is not essential to the identification of the sound"
      "The physicalist view banishes to the margin those features of sound that make sound so important to us, not only epistemologically, but also socially, morally, and aesthetically. In particular, it does not recognize the 'pure event' as a distinct ontological category, and one that introduces unique possibilities of communication."
      Scruton uses examples and explanation of sound grouping/streaming (cf Bregman) to support his view of sounds as pure events because such auditory grouping needs no "bridges to the physical world" in the way that visual Gestalt figures do.
      "pure events contain within themselves the principles whereby they can be ordered ... all without stepping into the order of things.
      Secondary qualities are the way things feel -- not primary qualities that are physical and can be objectively measured. Secondary qualities allow us to discriminate between phenomena such as sounds.
      Scruton supports his view that sounds are separate from the objects that emit them with examples such as radio and recording -- acousmatic sound. In such a case, sounds can be grouped (streamed) together coherently without reference to their physical origin.
      To Scruton, sound's independence from the physical world leads to a coherence (grouping, streaming) that is a 'virtual causality'. It bears no relation to the process by which sounds are formed.
Sterne, J. (2012). Sonic imaginations. In J. Sterne (Ed.), The Sound Studies Reader (pp. 1–17). London: Routledge.  
Added by: sirfragalot 5/13/16, 2:30 PM
      "Does sound refer to a phenomenon out in the world which ears then pick up? Does it refer to a human phenomenon that only exists in relation to the physical world? Or is it something else? The answer to the question has tremendous implications for both the objects and methods of sound studies."
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