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Keyword:  Perceptual synchrony
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Keetels, M., & Vroomen, J. (2012). Perception of synchrony between the senses. In M. M. Murray & M. T. Wallace (Eds), The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes (pp. 147–177). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 08/31/2021 04:15:31 PM
      "The perception of time and, in particular, synchrony between the senses is not straightforward because there is no dedicated sense organ that registers time in an absolute scale. Moreover, to perceive synchrony, the brain has to deal with differences in physical (outside the body) and neural (inside the body) transmission times. Sounds, for example, travel through air much slower than visual information does (i.e., 300,000,000 m/s for vision vs. 330 m/s for audition), whereas no physical transmission time through air is involved for tactile stimulation as it is presented directly at the body surface. The neural processing time also differs between the senses, and it is typically slower for visual than it is for auditory stimuli (approximately 50 vs. 10 ms, respectively), whereas for touch, the brain may have to take into account where the stimulation originated from as the traveling time from the toes to the brain is longer than from the nose (the typical conduction velocity is 55 m/s, which results in a 30 ms difference between toe and nose when this distance is 1.60 m; Macefield et al. 1989). Because of these differences, one might expect that for audiovisual events, only those occurring at the so-called “horizon of simultaneity” (Poppel 1985; Poppel et al. 1990)—a distance of approximately 10 to 15 m from the observer—will result in the approximate synchronous arrival of auditory and visual information at the primary sensory cortices. Sounds will arrive before visual stimuli if the audiovisual event is within 15 m from the observer, whereas vision will arrive before sounds for events farther away. Although surprisingly, despite these naturally occurring lags, observers perceive intersensory synchrony for most multisensory events in the external world, and not only for those at 15 m."

Macefield G, Gandevia S.C, Burke D. Conduction velocities of muscle and cutaneous afferents in the upper and lower limbs of human subjects. Brain. 1989;112(6):1519–32.

Pöppel E. Grenzes des bewusstseins, Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstal, translated as Mindworks: Time and Conscious Experience. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 1985. 1988.

Poppel E, Schill K, von Steinbuchel N. Sensory integration within temporally neutral systems states: A hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften. 1990;77(2):89–91.

Vroomen, J., & Keetels, M. (2010). Perception of intersensory synchrony: A tutorial review. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 871–884.  
Added by: sirfragalot 08/25/2021 10:08:14 AM
      "the assumption of unity. It states that, as information from different modalities share more (amodal) properties, the more likely it is that the brain treats them as originating from a common object or source. . . Without doubt, the most important amodal property is temporal coincidence . . . From this perspective, one expects intersensory interactions to occur if, and only if, information from the different sense organs reaches the brain at around the same time; otherwise, separate events are perceived, rather than a single multisensory one."
      "The perception of time, however, and, in particular, synchrony among the senses, is not straightforward, because no sense organ registers time on an absolute scale. Moreover, to perceive synchrony, the brain must deal with differences in physical and neural transmission times. Sounds, for example, travel through air much more slowly than does light (330 vs. 300,000,000 m/sec), whereas no physical transmission time through air is involved for tactile stimulation, which is usually presented directly at the body surface. The neural processing time also differs among the senses, being typically slower for visual stimuli than for auditory stimuli (approximately 50 vs. 10 msec, respectively), whereas, for touch, the brain may have to take into account where the stimulation originated, because the traveling time is longer from the toes to the brain than from the nose (the typical conduction velocity is 55 m/sec, which results in a ~30-msec difference between toe and nose for a distance of 1.60 m; Macefield, Gandevia, & Burke, 1989). Because of these physical and neural differences, it has been argued that auditory and visual information arrives synchronously at the primary sensory cortices only if the event occurs at a distance of approximately 10–15 m from the observer. This has been called the horizon of simultaneity (Pöppel, 1985; Pöppel, Schill, & von Steinbüchel, 1990), assuming that, arguably, synchrony is perceived at the primary sensory cortices. Sounds should thus appear to arrive before visual stimuli if the audio–visual event is within 15 m of the observer, whereas vision should arrive before sounds for events farther away. Surprisingly, however, despite these naturally occurring lags among the senses, observers perceive intersensory synchrony for most multisensory events in the external world and not only for those at 15 m. Only in exceptional circumstances, such as the thunder that is heard afterthe lightning, is a single multisensory event perceived as being separated in time."

Pöppel, E. (1985). Grenzen des Bewußtseins. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. [Translated as Mindworks: Time and conscious ex- perience. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.]

Pöppel, E., Schill, K., & von Steinbüchel, N. (1990). Sensory inte- gration within temporally neutral systems states: A hypothesis. Natur- wissenschaften, 77, 89-91. doi:10.1007/BF01131783

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