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Barfield, W. (2016). Musings on Presence twenty-five years after "Being There". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 148–150.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/8/19, 11:15 AM
      "we particularly need more studies on how the nonvisual modalities (e.g. haptic, gustatory, auditory, smell) affect the sense of presence"
Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T. B., & Slater, M. (1995). Presence and performance within virtual environments. In W. Barfield & T. A. Furness III (Eds), Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design (pp. 473–513). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/6/20, 9:01 AM
      The authors base their definition of presence in virtual environments (being there) on presence in non-virtual or real worlds and take this foundational definition from Webster's: ""Presence" generally refers to the sense of being present in time or space at a particular location"
      "An important point to emphasize is that it is necessary for attentional resources to be directed to stimulus information before the sense of presence can occur."
      Note that presence can occur when only a subset of sensory modalities are engaged. Claim that many VEs "successfully invoke presence" via auditory and visual modalities only.
Barfield, W., & Weghorst, S. 1993, August 8–13 The sense of presence within virtual environments: A conceptual framework. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Amsterdam.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/18, 5:22 PM
      Proposes a number of factors influencing presence in VEs (virtual presence):
  • display fidelity
  • environmental stability
  • sensory bandwidth (phenomenal richness)
  • interactive fidelity
  • person variables
  • task variables
  • context variables

 

      "Virtual presence is generally conceived of as a hypothetical subjective state of awareness and involvement in a non-present environment."
      Proposes a number of psychphysiological means to assess presence.
      Attempting to assess presence: "we might expect a performance decrement on concurrent tasks defined solely in the natural environment. And when natural and virtual frames of reference call for conflicting responses, the direction of resolution of the conflict may also serve as an indicator of the degree of presence within each. Furthermore, as the sense of presence increases, the attentional resoures allocated to the objects or tasks performed in the virtual environment should increase. Therefore, we postulate that as the sense of presence increases, the virtual environment participant will pay less attention to sensory input external to the virtual environment."
Benyon, D., Smyth, M., O'Neill, S., McCall, R., & Carroll, F. (2006). The place probe: Exploring a sense of place in real and virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6), 668–687.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/16/18, 3:17 PM
      "the sense of presence requires a body; it is not just a mental construct."
Berry, C. (1987). The actor and his text. London: Harrap.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/14/20, 3:34 PM
      "...our voice is our sound presence, and is the means by which we commit our private world to the world outside"
Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 4/21/22, 10:30 PM
      "In all spatial experiences, there are two perspectives: allocentric, from which objects are perceived relative to a fixed external framework; and egocentric, from which objects are perceived relative to the perceiver."
Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the feeling of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 376–391.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/14/20, 3:36 PM
      If anxiety is a mild form of fear is it related to greater attention to the sensory world (being anxious to survive) and so a larger salient horizon? Is the extent of the salient horizon directly related to presence?
      Suggest that there is a limit to the linear equation between increasing sophistication of immersive technology/level of realism and development of presence.
      Not only external factors but also "psychological states and appraisal patterns of users might also affect presence."
Brown, E., & Cairns, P. 2004, April 24–29 A grounded investigation of game immersion. Paper presented at Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/22/21, 10:35 AM
      "Total immersion is presence."
Burroughs, E. R. (2021). Tarzan of the apes. Project Gutenberg.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 4/20/22, 2:27 PM
      "Every sound she magnified into the stealthy creeping of a sinuous and malignant body.”
      “From far in the distance came the faint sound of many guns. Tarzan and Jane raised their heads.”
      “From the dark shadows of the mighty forest came the wild calls of savage beasts—the deep roar of the lion, and, occasionally, the shrill scream of a panther.”
      “During the long hours of darkness they caught but fitful snatches of sleep, for the night noises of a great jungle teeming with myriad animal life kept their overwrought nerves on edge, so that a hundred times they were startled to wakefulness by piercing screams, or the stealthy moving of great bodies beneath them.”
      “Scarcely had they closed their eyes than the terrifying cry of a panther rang out from the jungle behind them.”
      “At night great beasts snarled and roared about their tiny cabin, but, so accustomed may one become to oft repeated noises, that soon they paid little attention to them, sleeping soundly the whole night through.”
      “One afternoon, while Clayton was working upon an addition to their cabin, for he contemplated building several more rooms, a number of their grotesque little friends came shrieking and scolding through the trees from the direction of the ridge. Ever as they fled they cast fearful glances back of them, and finally they stopped near Clayton jabbering excitedly to him as though to warn him of approaching danger.”
      “It was approaching through the jungle in a semi-erect position, now and then placing the backs of its closed fists upon the ground—a great anthropoid ape, and, as it advanced, it emitted deep guttural growls and an occasional low barking sound.”
      “That night a little son was born in the tiny cabin beside the primeval forest, while a leopard screamed before the door, and the deep notes of a lion’s roar sounded from beyond the ridge.”
      “For a long time no sound broke the deathlike stillness of the jungle midday save the piteous wailing of the tiny man-child.”
      “With a wild scream he was upon her, tearing a great piece from her side with his mighty teeth, and striking her viciously upon her head and shoulders with a broken tree limb until her skull was crushed to a jelly.”
      “He had seen many of his kind go to their deaths before the loud noise made by the little black stick in the hands of the strange white ape who lived in that wonderful lair, and Kerchak had made up his brute mind to own that death-dealing contrivance, and to explore the interior of the mysterious den.”
      “There were no growls, no fierce screams of rage—the little black stick had taught them to come quietly lest they awaken it.”
      “As she took up the little live baby of Alice Clayton she dropped the dead body of her own into the empty cradle; for the wail of the living had answered the call of universal motherhood within her wild breast which the dead could not still.
High up among the branches of a mighty tree she hugged the shrieking infant to her bosom, and soon the instinct that was as dominant in this fierce female as it had been in the breast of his tender and beautiful mother—the instinct of mother love—reached out to the tiny man-child’s half-formed understanding, and he became quiet.”
      “Cautiously he approached the thing, ready to flee precipitately should it speak in its deep roaring tones, as he had heard it speak before, the last words to those of his kind who, through ignorance or rashness, had attacked the wonderful white ape that had borne it.”
      “Using his long arms as a man uses crutches, and rolling his huge carcass from side to side with each stride, the great king ape paced to and fro, uttering deep growls, occasionally punctuated with the ear-piercing scream, than which there is no more terrifying noise in all the jungle.”
      “Those of the apes who attempted to examine Kala’s strange baby were repulsed with bared fangs and low menacing growls, accompanied by words of warning from Kala.”
      “An instant she paused thus, as though turned to stone, and then, with an awful scream, she sprang.
Sabor, the lioness, was a wise hunter. To one less wise the wild alarm of her fierce cry as she sprang would have seemed a foolish thing, for could she not more surely have fallen upon her victims had she but quietly leaped without that loud shriek?”
      “Her wild scream was not a warning. It was voiced to freeze her poor victims in a paralysis of terror for the tiny fraction of an instant which would suffice for her mighty claws to sink into their soft flesh and hold them beyond hope of escape.”
      “The cries of the gorilla proclaimed that it was in mortal combat with some other denizen of the fierce wood. Suddenly these cries ceased, and the silence of death reigned throughout the jungle.”
      “Many travelers have seen the drums of the great apes, and some have heard the sounds of their beating and the noise of the wild, weird revelry of these first lords of the jungle, but Tarzan, Lord Greystoke, is, doubtless, the only human being who ever joined in the fierce, mad, intoxicating revel of the Dum-Dum.”
      “As the light in the amphitheater increased the females augmented the frequency and force of their blows until presently a wild, rhythmic din pervaded the great jungle for miles in every direction. Huge, fierce brutes stopped in their hunting, with up-pricked ears and raised heads, to listen to the dull booming that betokened the Dum-Dum of the apes.”
      “Occasionally one would raise his shrill scream or thunderous roar in answering challenge to the savage din of the anthropoids, but none came near to investigate or attack, for the great apes, assembled in all the power of their numbers, filled the breasts of their jungle neighbors with deep respect.”
      “Standing erect he threw his head far back and looking full into the eye of the rising moon he beat upon his breast with his great hairy paws and emitted his fearful roaring shriek.”
      “One—twice—thrice that terrifying cry rang out across the teeming solitude of that unspeakably quick, yet unthinkably dead, world.”
      “Another male then sprang into the arena, and, repeating the horrid cries of his king, followed stealthily in his wake. Another and another followed in quick succession until the jungle reverberated with the now almost ceaseless notes of their bloodthirsty screams.”
      “Kerchak, seizing a huge club from the pile which lay at hand for the purpose, rushed furiously upon the dead ape, dealing the corpse a terrific blow, at the same time emitting the growls and snarls of combat.”
      “As the noise and rapidity of the drumbeats increased the dancers apparently became intoxicated with the wild rhythm and the savage yells.”
      “With horrifying screams and roars he rushed to the ground, among the females and young, sinking his great fangs into a dozen tiny necks and tearing great pieces from the backs and breasts of the females who fell into his clutches.”
      “As the body rolled to the ground Tarzan of the Apes placed his foot upon the neck of his lifelong enemy and, raising his eyes to the full moon, threw back his fierce young head and voiced the wild and terrible cry of his people.”
      “Looking full into the wicked, red eyes of Kerchak, the young Lord Greystoke beat upon his mighty breast and screamed out once more his shrill cry of defiance.”
      “With back-laid ears she looked straight into the eyes of Tarzan of the Apes and sounded her fierce, shrill challenge.”
      “Screaming with rage she suddenly charged, leaping high into the air toward Tarzan, but when her huge body struck the limb on which Tarzan had been, Tarzan was no longer there.”
      “That he joyed in killing, and that he killed with a joyous laugh upon his handsome lips betokened no innate cruelty.”
      “As he was trying to think out some plan to distract her attention he heard a wild cry from across the clearing.”
      “Tarzan of the Apes felt of each article, hefted the spears, smelled of them, for he “saw” largely through his sensitive and highly trained nostrils.”
      “But now he heard, outside, the sounds of many voices, and long mournful howls, and mighty wailing.”
      “Behind trailed the women, uttering strange cries and weird lamentation.”
      “The circle of warriors about the cringing captive drew closer and closer to their prey as they danced in wild and savage abandon to the maddening music of the drums.”
      “With swelling breast, he placed a foot upon the body of his powerful enemy, and throwing back his fine young head, roared out the awful challenge of the victorious bull ape.
The forest echoed to the savage and triumphant paean.”
      “Frothing and shrieking in the insanity of his fury, Kerchak looked about for the object of his greatest hatred, and there, upon a near-by limb, he saw him sitting.”
      “Come down, Tarzan, great killer,” cried Kerchak. “Come down and feel the fangs of a greater! Do mighty fighters fly to the trees at the first approach of danger?” And then Kerchak emitted the volleying challenge of his kind.”
      “As his antagonist came roaring toward him, Lord Greystoke tore his long knife from its sheath, and with an answering challenge as horrid and bloodcurdling as that of the beast he faced, rushed swiftly to meet the attack.”
      “Withdrawing the knife that had so often rendered him master of far mightier muscles than his own, Tarzan of the Apes placed his foot upon the neck of his vanquished enemy, and once again, loud through the forest rang the fierce, wild cry of the conqueror.”
      “Now was the quiet, fierce solitude of the primeval forest broken by new, strange cries. No longer was there safety for bird or beast. Man had come.”
      “The tribe was feeding quietly, spread over a considerable area, when a great screaming arose some distance east of where Tarzan lay upon his belly beside a limpid brook, attempting to catch an elusive fish in his quick, brown hands.
With one accord the tribe swung rapidly toward the frightened cries, and there found Terkoz holding an old female by the hair and beating her unmercifully with his great hands.”
      “Again Mirando’s shrill cry of mortal terror had caused them to look back, and there they had seen the most horrible sight—their companion’s body flying upwards into the trees, his arms and legs beating the air and his tongue protruding from his open mouth. No other sound did he utter nor was there any creature in sight about him.”
      “What was that?
His quick ear had caught a faint but unfamiliar sound.”
      “The watchers in the cabin by the beach heard the sound of his voice growing ever fainter and fainter, until at last it was swallowed up by the myriad noises of the primeval wood.”
      “It was Sheeta, the leopard. Now, Tarzan heard the soft bending of grasses and wondered why the young white man was not warned. Could it be he had failed to note the loud warning?”
      “No, the white man did not hear. Sheeta was crouching for the spring, and then, shrill and horrible, there rose from the stillness of the jungle the awful cry of the challenging ape, and Sheeta turned, crashing into the underbrush.”
      “The noise of some great body crashing through the underbrush so close beside him, and the sound of that bloodcurdling shriek from above, tested Clayton’s courage to the limit; but he could not know that it was to that very voice he owed his life, nor that the creature who hurled it forth was his own cousin—the real Lord Greystoke.”
      “Clayton heard the great body paralleling his course, and now there rose upon the evening air the beast’s thunderous roar. The man stopped with upraised spear and faced the brush from which issued the awful sound.”
      “With a roar of pain and anger the beast sprang”
      “Then the strange figure which had vanquished it stood erect upon the carcass, and throwing back the wild and handsome head, gave out the fearsome cry which a few moments earlier had so startled Clayton.”
      “Again Clayton attempted speech with the ape-man; but the replies, now vocal, were in a strange tongue, which resembled the chattering of monkeys mingled with the growling of some wild beast.”
      “The Englishman, finally concluding that he was a prisoner, saw no alternative open but to accompany his captor, and thus they traveled slowly through the jungle while the sable mantle of the impenetrable forest night fell about them, and the stealthy footfalls of padded paws mingled with the breaking of twigs and the wild calls of the savage life that Clayton felt closing in upon him.”
      “She feared not more for herself than for the three men whom she knew to be wandering in the abysmal depths of the savage jungle, from which she now heard issuing the almost incessant shrieks and roars, barkings and growlings of its terrifying and fearsome denizens as they sought their prey.”
      “And now there came the sound of a heavy body brushing against the side of the cabin. She could hear the great padded paws upon the ground outside. For an instant, all was silence; even the bedlam of the forest died to a faint murmur. Then she distinctly heard the beast outside sniffing at the door, not two feet from where she crouched.”
      “Esmeralda, cowering still closer to her mistress, took one frightened glance toward the little square of moonlight, just as the lioness emitted a low, savage snarl.”
      “For fully twenty minutes the brute alternately sniffed and tore at the door, occasionally giving voice to a wild, savage cry of baffled rage.”
      “There was a flash of flame, the roar of the discharge, and an answering roar of pain and anger from the beast.”
      “Presently they came to the clearing before the beach. Tarzan’s quick ears had heard the strange sounds of Sabor’s efforts to force her way through the lattice, and it seemed to Clayton that they dropped a straight hundred feet to earth, so quickly did Tarzan descend.”
      “Sabor emitted a frightful shriek.”
      “In an instant Tarzan was upon his feet, and for the second time that day Clayton heard the bull ape’s savage roar of victory.”
      “What a frightful sound!” cried Jane, “I shudder at the mere thought of it. Do not tell me that a human throat voiced that hideous and fearsome shriek.”
      “Savage beasts roared and growled; noises, hideous and weird, assailed their ears.”
      “Just then it occurred to Tarzan of the Apes that Numa had loitered beneath the tree for a sufficient length of time, so he raised his young head toward the heavens, and there rang out upon the terrified ears of the two old men the awful warning challenge of the anthropoid.”
      “For a moment they swayed uncertainly, and then, with mingled and most unscholarly shrieks, they pitched headlong from the tree, locked in frenzied embrace.”
      “As he stood, straight as a young Indian, by the door, waiting after he had finished the message, there came to his keen ears a familiar sound. It was the passing of a great ape through the lower branches of the forest.
For an instant he listened intently, and then from the jungle came the agonized scream of a woman, and Tarzan of the Apes, dropping his first love letter upon the ground, shot like a panther into the forest.”
      “One piercing scream escaped her lips as the brute hand clutched her arm”
      “Esmeralda’s scream of terror had mingled once with that of Jane, and then, as was Esmeralda’s manner under stress of emergency which required presence of mind, she swooned.”
      “Early the following morning the four within the little cabin by the beach were awakened by the booming of a cannon.”
      “What was that awful noise?” she whispered, shrinking close to him.
“It was the cry of the kill from the throat of the man who has just saved your life, Miss Porter. Wait, I will fetch him so you may thank him.”
      “The groans of the wounded, mingled with the roaring and growling of the great beasts which the noise and firelight had attracted, kept sleep, except in its most fitful form, from the tired eyes.”
      “They hurried him along, the sounds of battle growing fainter and fainter as they drew away from the contestants until there suddenly broke upon D’Arnot’s vision a good-sized clearing at one end of which stood a thatched and palisaded village.”
      “He was a brave man, but he had felt the short hairs bristle upon the nape of his neck when that uncanny cry rose upon the air.”
      “At length the signal came—a sharp rattle of musketry, and like one man, an answering volley tore from the jungle to the west and to the south.”
      “Sentries were posted at the barred gates, and finally the village was wrapped in the silence of slumber, except for the wailing of the native women for their dead.”
      “The incessant hum of the jungle—the rustling of millions of leaves—the buzz of insects—the voices of the birds and monkeys seemed blended into a strangely soothing purr, as though he lay apart, far from the myriad life whose sounds came to him only as a blurred echo.”
      “I hoped I’d never have to sleep in this here geological garden another night and listen to all them lonesome noises that come out of that jumble after dark.”
      “I’m afraid I’d be a blooming bounder as a wild man,” laughed Clayton, ruefully. “Those noises at night make the hair on my head bristle. I suppose that I should be ashamed to admit it, but it’s the truth.”
      “I don’t know about that,” said Lieutenant Charpentier. “I never thought much about fear and that sort of thing—never tried to determine whether I was a coward or brave man; but the other night as we lay in the jungle there after poor D’Arnot was taken, and those jungle noises rose and fell around us I began to think that I was a coward indeed. It was not the roaring and growling of the big beasts that affected me so much as it was the stealthy noises—the ones that you heard suddenly close by and then listened vainly for a repetition of—the unaccountable sounds as of a great body moving almost noiselessly, and the knowledge that you didn’t KNOW how close it was, or whether it were creeping closer after you ceased to hear it? It was those noises—and the eyes.”
      “Just then the deep roar of a lion sounded from the distant jungle, as though to challenge whoever dared enter the lists with him.”
      “Then with his foot upon the carcass of Numa, he raised his voice in the awesome victory cry of his savage tribe.”
      “God! What was that?” suddenly cried one of the party, an Englishman, as Tarzan’s savage cry came faintly to their ears.”
      “D’Arnot remembered Clayton’s description of the awful roar with which Tarzan had announced his kills, and he half smiled in spite of the horror which filled him to think that the uncanny sound could have issued from a human throat—from the lips of his friend.”
      “He did not press the matter further, but if ever a man had murder in his heart it was William Cecil Clayton, Lord Greystoke, when, a week later, Robert Canler drew up before the farmhouse in his purring six cylinder.”
      “At the sight of Jane, cries of relief and delight broke from every lip, and as Tarzan’s car stopped beside the other, Professor Porter caught his daughter in his arms.”
      “Gradually he became accustomed to the strange noises and the odd ways of civilization, so that presently none might know that two short months before, this handsome Frenchman in immaculate white ducks, who laughed and chatted with the gayest of them, had been swinging naked through primeval forests to pounce upon some unwary victim, which, raw, was to fill his savage belly.”
      Given the almost total absence of sound descriptors for the civilized world, it is almost as if Burroughs is saying that that world is mute and/or that sounds are of lesser or no importance.

That might be one way to look at it. Note that Burroughs never travelled to Africa and so, presumably, had no experience of the uniquely African soundscapes.

      In defence of Burroughs and his of-his-time casual racism and imperialist/colonialist aggrandizing, he is also aware and judgemental of the worst of colonial depredations and abuses. For example, “To add to the fiendishness of their cruel savagery was the poignant memory of still crueler barbarities practiced upon them and theirs by the white officers of that arch hypocrite, Leopold II of Belgium, because of whose atrocities they had fled the Congo Free State—a pitiful remnant of what once had been a mighty tribe.”
      Note that several chapters contain little description of sound (e.g., 17 and and the first part of 18) probably because they deal with (to the reader) the familiar and mundane (narratives of the Europeans and tales of pirates and mutiny) rather than the jungle and wild creatures.

Chapters 27 and 28 also contain little such description—one in each chapter and then positive sounds (the purring of a car's engine, cries of relief and delight).

Chapter 26, where Tarzan is learning to be a 'civilized' gentleman at the trading outpost on the West African coast, is an example of plentiful use of sound descriptors. But they are not to describe the sounds of civilization, rather the sounds that arise from an excursion back to the jungle that Tarzan takes.

      “Clayton came to his feet with a start. His blood ran cold. Never in all his life had so fearful a sound smote upon his ears.”
Byrne, R. M. J. (2007). The rational imagination: How people create alternatives to reality. Cambridge: The MIT Press.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/27/11, 4:49 AM
      The similarities in imaginative scenarios suggest "that there are "joints" in reality, junctures that attract everyone's attention."
Calleja, G. (2014). Immersion in virtual worlds. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality (pp. 222–236). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/18, 5:21 PM
      Calleja favors the term incorporation over immersion or presence because the latter two "are defined by their discontinuity from the real physical world [whereas] incorporation occurs [when playing a computer game, for example] when the game world is present to the player while simultaneously the player is present, via an avatar, to the virtual environment."
      Calleja's main bone of contention with concepts such as immersion and presence is that they imply that the user of a virtual environment is "merely a subjective consciousness being poured into the containing vessel of the virtual environment."
      For incorporation to occur, the medium must "specifically acknowledge the player's presence and agency within the virtual world."
      "while high-fidelity systems are an important part of enhancing the intensity of an experience, they do not themselves create a sense of presence."
Calleja, G. 2007, September 24–28 Revising immersion: A conceptual model for the analysis of digital game involvement. Paper presented at Situated Play, University of Tokyo.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/23/09, 11:31 AM
      Uses a form of Goffman's 'frames' to account for incorporation where "[e]ach frame represents a modality of meaning through which the role of playing experience is interpreted and performed. Players swith between frames rapidly and fluently". There are 6 frames:

1. tactical involvement
2. affective involvement
3. narrative involvement
4. shared involvement
5. performative involvement
6. spatial involvement

The Digital Game Involvement Model has two temporal phases: macro-involvement and micro-involvement. The latter operates on a "moment by moment involvement of the game-playing instance" whereas the former focuses on "sustained engagement through the long-term". During each of the two phases, players can experience one or more of the 6 frames.
      "Performative engagement is the actualization of tactical involvement representing the execution of established decisions"
      The 6 frames describe "a spectrum of experience ranging from conscious attention to internalized knowledge." ...See comments about the quote "This process of internalization also implies an intensification in focus where players cease to view the virtual environment as separate from their immediate surroundings and start interacting with it in an instinctive way".
      "Incorporation is the subjective experience of inhabiting a virtual environment facilitated by the potential to act meaningfully within it while being present to others."
      Calleja's objection to the term 'immersion' is that it is a binary opposition between the player and the game world where the game screen, the computer monitor or TV, is the boundary with the represented game environment on one side and the real world on the other.
Carr, D. (2006). Space, navigation and affect. In Computer Games: Text, Narrative and Play (pp. 59–71). Cambridge: Polity.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/17/09, 9:41 AM
      Summarizing immersion as described by other writers, Carr suggests that there are two categories of immersion: "perceptual immersion, which occurs when an experience monopolizes the senses of the participant, and psychological immersion, which involves the participant becoming engrossed through their imaginative or mental absorption."
Chertoff, D. B., Schatz, S. L., McDaniel, R., & Bowers, C. A. (2008). Improving presence theory through experiential design. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 405–413.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/27/18, 4:27 PM  Mat. 10/10
      "Current virtual environments are primarily conceptualized as information technologies, while they should instead be considered "knowledge technologies"."
      "presence is an emergent factor due to the interaction of many components [...] it is a result that is greater than the sum of its parts."
      Proposes 5 dimensions to presence (dimensions come from experience design theories):
  • sensory – sensory input and perceptions (VR: hardware and software)
  • cognitive – mental engagement (VR: task engagement [motivation, meaningfulness, continuity])
  • affective – emotional state (VR: emotions in VR mimic emotions in same RW scenario?)
  • active – personal connection, incorporation into personal narrative (VR: empathy, avatar identification etc.)
  • relational – social aspects (VR: co-experience and collaborative experience of VR)
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/7/21, 8:48 AM
      "Of two war reports that come back from a very real war, the one in which the image is shaky and rough, with uneven focus and other "mistakes," will seem more true than the one with impeccable framing, perfect visibility, and imperceptible grain. In much the same way for sound, the impression of realism is often tied to a feeling of discomfort, of an uneven signal, of interference and microphone noise, etc."
Davis, E. (1997). Acoustic cyberspace. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.techgnosis.com/acoustic.html  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/15/11, 11:57 AM
      "My question here is: why are acoustic spaces so effective in this regard? What is it about sound that is so potentially immersive? I think it has to do with how we register it—how it affects different areas of the bodymind than visuals do. Affect is a tremendously important dimension of experience, and one of the most difficult to achieve in a visual environment. "Atmosphere" might be a good way to describe this aspect: sound produces atmosphere, almost in the way that incense—which registers with yet another sense—can do. Sound and smell carry vectors of mood and affect which change the qualitative organization of space, unfolding a different logic with a space's range of potentials. Ambient music, or an ambient soundscape, can change the quality of a space in subtle or dramatic ways."
Douglas, Y., & Hargadon, A. 2000, May 30–June 3 The pleasure principle: Immersion, engagement, flow. Paper presented at Proceedings of the eleventh ACM on Hypertext and hypermedia, San Antonio, Texas.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/22/21, 10:24 AM
      "Reading Jane Eyre is immersive [because it conforms to the well-known schema of the romance novel]. Reading Ulysses is engaging [because it cannot easily be accommodated to such an accessible schema]."
      "a state in which readers [of a hypertext or interactive narrative such as many forms of computer game] are both immersed and engaged"
      The authors make the distinction that immersion is pleasurable whereas engagement is stimulating to the intellect. What is confusing is their later statement that immersion and engagement are not in fact two separate states that can co-exist as flow but are polar opposites on a continuum.
Ellis, S. R. (1996). Presence of mind: A reaction to Thomas Sheridan's "further musings on the psychophysics of presence". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(2), 247–259.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/26/18, 10:46 AM
      "A clear meaning for virtual as used in this paper may be based on a more general concept: virtualization, which can be considered the process by which a viewer interprets patterned sensory impressions to represent objects in an environment other than that from which the impressions physically originate."
      "one could consider the normal functioning of the human sensory systems as the special case in which the detection of physical energy and the interpretation of patterned sensory impressions result in the perception of real objects in the surrounding physical environment. In this respect perception of the physical environment resolves to the case in which through a process of systematic doubt, it is impossible for an observer to refute the hypothesis that the apparent source of sensory stimulus is indeed its physical source."
      "As more and more sources of sensory information and envrionmental control are available, the process of virtualization  [...] can be more and more complete until the resulting impression is indistinguishable from physical reality"
      Discussing how measurements of aspects of "a virtual environment display convince its users that they are present in a synthetic world"
      In suggesting that interface performance in virtual environments  can be improved by decreasing presence, Ellis suggests removing or controlling the realism of spatial information.
Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16–20 Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/30/11, 4:15 AM
      Using Pine and Gilmore's (1999) two dimensions of experience, participation (passive <--> active)and connection (absorption <--> immersion), the authors define immersion as "becoming physically or virtually a part of the experience itself" as opposed to absorption which is "directing attention to an experience that is brought to mind" and use these two definitions to define four realms of experience:

  • Entertainment -- absorption and passive participation
  • Educational -- absorption and active participation
  • Aesthetic -- immersion and passive participation
  • Escapist -- immersion and active participation


Gameplay is escapist.
      Paraphrasing Pine and Gilmore (1999), "immersion means becoming physically or virtually a part of the experience itself"
Flach, J. M., & Holden, J. G. (1998). The reality of experience: Gibson's way. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(1), 90–95.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/18, 5:21 PM
      Re Gibson, "action takes precedence. The experience depends more on what can be "done" than on the quality of visual or acoustic images."
      "in the design of experiences in virtual environments the constraints on action take precedence over the constraints on perception."
      "the reality of experience (i.e. presence or immersion)."
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