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Keyword:  perception
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Anderson, J. D. (1996). The reality of illusion: An ecological approach to cognitive film theory. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 10/28/2016 06:06:43 PM
      An argument that [Hollywood] films are designed solely for audience accessibility -- if films are not accessible to the public, they don't sell and the producer/director don't work again -- "problems of accessibility are problems of perception." (p. 11)
Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 02/12/2014 04:37:10 PM
      "...we do not so much hear sound as perceive sonic events..."
      A discussion on auditory spatial awareness. Conclusions, based mainly on case studies of blind people:

  • Auditory spatial awareness is a skill that must be learnt and is difficult to learn.
  • Different aural cultures have different abilities and there is no one sensitivity to aural space; rather a group of independent sensory skills (some more aware of spatial volumes, others more aware of objects in that space).
  • Controlled experiments showing humans have give auditory spatial awareness should be treated with care as they are artificial and, in testing one spatial factor, usually remove other potentially confusing factors.
Bregman, A. S. (1993). Auditory scene analysis: Hearing in complex environments. In S. McAdams & E. Bigand (Eds), Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition (pp. 10–36). Oxford: Clarendon Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/28/2005 10:43:03 AM
      The correct perception of sound "is probably as long as the system is operating in the rich natural environment in which it evolved." Sound in isolation or in anechoic chambers may produce illusions.
      A useful anaology of a robot attempting to 'perceive' and separate multiple sound sources to illustrate the fact that there is more to the perception of sound than the theories supplied by physics.
      Humans exploit acoustic regularity in order to analyse and synthesis the auditory scene into different perceptual units.
      A long section in which several rules are supplied for primitive auditory scene analysis based on the detection of frequency, temporal and intensity regularity.

1. "Unrelated sounds seldom start or stop exactly at the same time." p.17

2. "Gradualness of change. a) A single sound tends to change its properties smoothly and slowly. b) A sequence of sounds from the same source tends to change its properties slowly." p.18

3. "When a body vibrates with a repetitive period, its vibrations give rise to an acoustic pattern in which the frequency components are multiples of a common fundamental." p.27

4. "Many changes that take place in an acoustic event will affect all the components of the resulting sound in the same way and at the same time." p.28
Bregman, A. S., & Campbell, J. (1971). Primary auditory stream segregation and perception of order in rapid sequences of tones. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89(2), 244–249.  
Added by: sirfragalot 09/28/2005 10:26:09 AM
      "The distinction between a [auditory] stream and a sensory channel is that a stream is an organizational entity and is not definable by any single physical property."
Bruner, J. S. (1957). On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review, 64(2), 123–152.  
Added by: sirfragalot 10/21/2005 02:48:18 PM
      "Perception involves an act of categorization. Put in terms of the antecedent and subsequent conditions from which we make our inferences, we stimulate an organism with some appropriate input and he responds by referencing the input to some class of things or events."
      "...all perceptual experience is necessarily the end product of a categorization process."
      Discussing the accessibility of categories (how readily categorisation is performed): "...perceptual readiness or accessibility performs two functions: to minimize the surprise value of the environment by matching category accessibility to the probabilities of events in the world about one, and to maximize the attainment of sought-after objects and events."
      A section dealing with expectancy. Bruner suggests that expectancy of encountering events or objects in any context "preactivates a related array of categories" (p.137) leading to a heightened state of perceptual readiness.
Clark, A. (2013). Expecting the world: Perception, prediction, and the origins of human knowledge. Journal of Philosophy, CX(9), 469–496.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 07/26/2018 10:36:16 AM
      "Perception [...] is the successful prediction of the current sensory signal using stored knowledge about the world. [The model] explains why perception, although carried out by the brain, cannot help but reach out to a distal world; it shows why that 'reaching out' reveals a world that is already structured"
      Clark presents two alternate models of perception:

"What happens when, after a brief chat with a colleague, I re-enter my office and visually perceive the hot, steaming, red cup of coffee that I left waiting on my desk? One possibility is that my brain receives a swathe of visual signals (imagine, for simplicity, an array of activated pixels) that specify a number of elementary features such as lines, edges, and color patches. Those elementary features are then progressively accumulated and (where appropriate) bound together, yielding shapes and specifying relations. At some point, these complex shapes and relations activate bodies of stored knowledge, turning the flow of sensation into world-revealing perception: the seeing of coffee, steam, and cup, with the steaming bound to the coffee, the color red to the cup, and so on.


As I re-enter my office my brain already commands a complex set of coffee-involving expectations. Glancing at my desk sets off a chain of visual processing in which current bottom-up signals are met by a stream of downwards predictions concerning the anticipated states of various neuronal groups along the appropriate visual pathway. In essence, a multi-layer downwards cascade is attempting to "guess" the present states of all the key neuronal populations responding to the present state of the visual world. There ensues a rapid exchange (a dance between multiple top-down and bottom-up signals) in which incorrect guesses yield error signals which propagate forward, and are used to extract better guesses. When top-down guessing adequately accounts for the incoming signal, the visual scene is perceived. As this process unfolds, top-down processing is trying to generate the incoming sensory signal for itself. When and only when this succeeds, and a match is established, do we get to experience (veridically or otherwise) a meaningful visual scene."


      "Perception [...] is a matter of the brain using stored knowledge to predict, in a progressively more refined manner, the patterns of multi-layer neuronal response elicited by the current sensory stimulation."
      Clark presents another example of the two competing models of perception this time concerning speech recognition (quoting p.936 of Poeppel & Monahan):

"Representations constructed at earlier stages of processing feed immediately higher levels in a feedforward manner...this process proceeds incrementally until access to a ''lexical conceptual'' representation has been achieved. In speech recognition...this involves a conversion from acoustic features onto phonetic representations, phonetic representations onto phonological representations, and finally access of the lexical item based on its phonological structure.
(1) the extraction of (necessarily brief and coarse) cues in the input signal to elicit hypotheses, that while coarse, are sufficient to generate plausible guesses about classes of sounds (for example, plosives, fricatives, nasals, and approximants), and that permit subsequent refinement; (2) the actual synthesis of potential sequences consistent with the cues; and (3) a comparison operation between synthesized targets and the input signal delivered from the auditory analysis of the speech."

David Poeppel and Philip J. Monahan “Feedforward and feedback in speech perception: Revisiting analysis by synthesis”, Language and Cognitive Processes 26:7, (2011): 935-95.

      "Perceptual content, as delivered by such a process of active self-prediction, is inherently organized and outward-looking [...] it reveals ‒ and cannot belp but reveal ‒ a structured [...] external world ... the world thus revealed is inherently meaningful ... It is an external arena populated not by proximal stimulations but by distal, causally interacting items and forces whose joint action best explains the current suite of sensory stimulation."
      "the brain's job is to account for the sensory signal by finding a way to generate, in a kind of rolling present, that incoming signal for itself. To do this, the brain must find the structure in the signal. But the structure in the sensory signal is mostly determined by the structure in the world (making sure that's the case is pretty much the job description if you are a sensory transducer). So the best way to anticipate/match the incoming signal is to discover and deploy internal resources that amount to a kind of 'virtual reality generator' that models the distal elements and their typical modes of interaction (simplistically, if it generates 'car' and 'sudden braking' it might also generate 'smoke from tires'). An agent perceives when the virtual reality generator can use its resources to capture (match, cancel out) the structure of the incoming signal."
      perception "is a process of explaining away the sensory signal by finding the most likely set of interacting distal causes"
      Arguing that the model he presents does not support the view of the reality of the world being created within us (i.e. indirect perception), Clark states that: "The internal representations at issue function within us, and are not encountered by us. Instead, they make it possible for us to encounter the world. Moreover, they enable us to do so under the ecologically common conditions of noise, uncertainty, and ambiguity."
Prediction-based models that Clark espouses "learn to construct the sensory signal by combining probabilistic representations of hidden causes operating at many different spatial and temporal scales [...] they must match the incoming sensory signal by constructing the signal from combinations of hidden causes (latent variables). The so-called 'transparency' of perception emerges as a natural consequence of such a process when it is conditioned by an embodied agent's lifestyle-specific capacities to act and to choose. We seem to see dogs, cats, chasings, pursuits, captures [...] because these feature among the interesting, nested, structures of distal causes that matter for human choice and action."
      Perception is "an active process involving the (sub-personal) prediction of our own evolving neural states."
      Basically, Clark is restating an existing view that the brain formulates various hypotheses about the world and selects one for perception. Slater, for example, uses this to explain the feeling of presence in VEs -- the brain selects an hypothesis from the ones available (i.e. there are multiple cues from both real and virtual environments) and that is where we feel present (Slater 2002). This is discussed further in Brenton et al. (2005)
Doane, M. A. (1980). Ideology and the practice of sound editing and mixing. In T. de Lauretis & S. Heath (Eds), The Cinematic Apparatus (pp. 47–56). London: Macmillan.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 02/24/2006 09:11:15 AM
      "Sound is a bearer of a meaning which is communicable and valid but unalalysable."
Ekman, I., & Kajastila, R. 2009, February 11—13 Localisation cues affect emotional judgements: Results from a user study on scary sound. Unpublished paper presented at AES 35th International Conference, London.  
Added by: sirfragalot 02/02/2009 10:39:12 AM
      Following on work by:
R. Reber, N. Schwarz, and P. Winkielman, “Processing Fluency and Aesthetic Pleasure: Is Beauty in the Perceiver's Processing Experience?” Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 364—382 (2004).

the authors suggest that negativity in sound perception is proportional to the fluency and ease of processing it (more difficult to understand, more scary).
Erlmann, V. (2000). Reason and resonance: A history of modern aurality. New York: Zone Books.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11/27/2014 09:46:54 AM
      Summarizing some of von Helmholtz's work c.1856 (On the Sensations of Tone: a sound (Klang) comprises several partials (Ton) thus perception, which is accomplished without reflection, is the act of fusing the sensation of several partials into one sound. Perceptions are thus the means by which we are aware of external objects whilst sensations allow us to become conscious of ourselves. "[P]erception is not based on conscious awareness and knowledge of the external world, but on a largely unconscious act" (p.237).

cf Humphrey's (2000) reference to Thomas Reid's (1785) assertion that sensation presupposes a sentient being and no more but perception is an acknowledgement of something external to that being.

      Re Helmholtz's assertion that perception is unconscious, he suggests that conscious analysis of the Klang into Ton constituents would be disturbing. Thus, according to Helmholtz, as Erlmann puts it: "Hearing is repression." (p.257)
Evens, A. (2005). Sound ideas: Music, machines, and experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 03/01/2006 01:02:08 PM
      "One cannot subject sound to a persistent observation; rather one can only listen and then, maybe, listen again. Music is apprehended in chunks of time. Partly because sound is dynamic, Western intellectual traditions show a markeds preference for vision as the figure of knowledge. We articulate more effectively the fixed image than the dynamic sound."
      "The reproduction of sound is not a matter of physics but of affect and percept."
Folmann, T. B. Auditory perception in games. Retrieved August 8, 2005, from http://www.gamesconfere ... viewabstract.php?id=361  
Added by: sirfragalot 10/20/2006 08:51:43 AM
      Suggests a three-point model of auditory perception in games based upon:

  • Emotional auditory perception in games
  • Physical auditory perception in games
  • Socio-cultural auditory perception in games
Gaver, W. W. (1993). How do we hear in the world? Explorations in ecological acoustics. Ecological Psychology, 5(4), 285–313.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 04/25/2013 04:39:09 PM
      Suggests that it is a mistake that acousticians and psychologists make when they assume that hearing a sound as an event requires higher and independent thought processes (because this requires memory and experience) because the sound (these people assume) does not carry such information itself.
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 04/26/2013 10:00:55 AM
      Distinguishes between senses/sensation and perception. The former are "qualities of experience" or "sources of conscious qualities" while the latter are "sources of knowledge" p. 47. Gibson makes a clear distinction and argues that they operate at least semi-independently: "...the pickup of stimulus information ... does not entail having sensations. Sensation is not a prerequisite of perception, and sense impressions are not the "raw data" of perception..." pp.47-48.
Hermann, T., & Ritter, H. (2004). Sound and meaning in auditory data display. Proceedings of the IEEE, 92(4), 730–741.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 06/25/2013 12:29:07 PM
      "pitch at the extremal ends of the frequency spectrum reinforces the threatening character of intense sounds and the comforting character of weak sounds."
Ihde, D. (2007). Listening and voice: Phenomenologies of sound 2nd ed. Albany (NY): State University of New York Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01/22/2020 08:19:12 AM
      While the visual field has a gemometrical shape that is spherical-like, the auditory field and its horizon are discernable only temporally.
      "My "self" is a correlate of the World, and its way of being-in that World is a way filled with voice and language.
Jennett, C. I. (2010). Is game immersion just another form of selective attention? An empirical investigation of real world dissociation in computer game immersion. Unpublished thesis PhD, University College London, United Kingdom.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/21/2010 09:17:27 AM
      "The interview findings of Study One revealed that due to their sense of progression in the game, players were less aware of time, changes in lighting (daylight turning to nightfall and vice versa) and changes in proprioception (fingers sore from button-pressing). Interestingly players also described themselves as being less aware of sounds - but some sounds more than others. Irrelevant distracters, such as the TV playing in the background, were less likely to be noticed than relevant distracters, such as someone calling your name (personally-relevant) or a sound related to the game but not coming from the game (gamerelevant). Thus we suggest that some kind an attention filter is at work for the processing of sounds during game-play: when a person is having a successful interaction with the game there is greater selectivity for relevance.

These findings concerning the processing of sounds share striking similarities with findings from the Auditory SA literature, particularly Treisman (1960)’s Attenuation Theory."
Kull, K. (2001). Jakob von Uexküll: An introduction. Semiotica, 134(1/4), 1–59.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 12/02/2019 04:07:06 PM
      "organisms are communicative structures. What organisms can distinguish is dependent on the design of their structure and on the work of their functional cycles. The latter, which consist of perception and operation, are responsible for creating the Umwelt. Umwelt is an entailment of the perceptual and operational world (Merkwelt and Wirkwelt)."
Locke, J. (1690). An essay concerning human understanding 2nd ed.  
Added by: sirfragalot 05/14/2021 01:58:59 PM
      "How often may a man observe in himself, that whilst his mind is intently employed in the contemplation of some objects, and curiously surveying some ideas that are there, it takes no notice of impressions of sounding bodies made upon the organ of hearing, with the same alteration that uses to be for the producing the idea of sound? A sufficient impulse there may be on the organ; but it not reaching the observation of the mind, there follows no perception: and though the motion that uses to produce the idea of sound be made in the ear, yet no sound is heard. Want of sensation, in this case, is not through any defect in the organ, or that the man’s ears are less affected than at other times when he does hear: but that which uses to produce the idea, though conveyed in by the usual organ, not being taken notice of in the understanding, and so imprinting no idea in the mind, there follows no sensation."
Maturana, H., & Varela, F. (1987). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding R. Paolucci, Trans. Boston: Shambhala.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 03/27/2006 08:08:13 AM
      "The nervous system does not 'pick up information' from the environment ... The popular metaphor of calling the brain an 'information-processing device' is not only ambiguous but patently wrong"
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The primacy of perception. Evanstown and London: Northwestern University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 09/23/2016 12:15:39 PM
      "Perception does not give me truth like geometry but presences"
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