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Keyword:  Acousmatic sound
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Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 06/07/2021 08:48:33 AM
      "When we listen acousmatically to recorded sounds it takes repeated hearings of a single sound to allow us gradually to stop attending to its cause and to more accurately perceive its inherent traits."
Clair, R. (1929). The art of sound. Retrieved January 16, 2006, from https://web.archive.org ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm  
Added by: sirfragalot 06/20/2006 08:17:52 AM
      For Clair, hearing clapping if one can see clapping is a redundant and unnecessary use of sound.
Dhomont, F. (1995). Acousmatic update. Contact! 8(2). Retrieved February 5, 2014, from http://cec.sonus.ca/contact/contact82Dhom.html  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 02/06/2014 03:54:23 PM
      Acousmatic "refers to a theoretical and practical compositional approach, to particular listening and realization conditions, and to sound projection strategies. Its origin is attributed to Pythagoras (6th C. BC) who, rumor has it, taught his classes -only verbally - from behind a partition, in order to force his students to focus all their attention on his message. In 1955, during the early stages of musique concrète, the writer Jérôme Peignot used the adjective acousmatic to define a sound which is heard and whose source is hidden. By shrouding 'behind' the speaker (a modern Pythagorean partition) any visual elements (such as instrumental performers on stage) that could be linked to perceived sound events, acousmatic art presents sound on its own, devoid of causal identity, thereby generating a flow of images in the psyche of the listener."
      "François Bayle introduce the term acousmatic music in 1974. This term designates a music of images that is "shot and developed in the studio, and projected in a hall, like a film", and is presented at a subsequent date. Bayle has stated that, "With time, this term - both criticized and adopted, and which at first may strike one as severe - has softened through repeated use within the community of composers, and now serves to demarcate music on a fixed medium (musique de support) - representing a wide aesthetic spectrum - from all other contemporary music.""

Bayle, F., 1993, Musique acousmatique, propositions... positions, Buchet/Chastel-INA-GRM ed., Paris, p.18

      "Today, the act of hearing a sound without seeing the object from which it originates is a daily occurrence. This happens when we listen to an orchestral symphony on our home sound system, when we listen to the radio, or when we communicate by phone, etc. In fact, like the typing chimpanzee who accidentally pens a Shakespearean line, we are unsuspecting acousmatic artists. But in these examples, it is not the message that is acousmatic but rather the listening conditions for the communication of that message."
      "The term Acousmatic Music (or Art) designates works that have been composed for loudspeakers, to be heard in the home -on radio or on CD/tape- or in concert, through the use of equipment (digital or analog) that allows the projection of sound in 3-dimensional space."
Kahn, D. (2002). Digits on the historical pulse: Being a way to think about how so much is happening and has happened in sound in the arts. Retrieved September 21, 2005, from http://cara.gsu.edu/pulsefield/kahn_essay.html  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09/21/2005 01:38:45 PM
      "Many images elicit an implied sound response. "Implied sound" was a device used in silent films, where an image of someone sawing away on a violin was meant to evoke the sound of a violin."
Parker, J. R., & Heerema, J. (2008). Audio interaction in computer mediated games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2008 Retrieved December 31, 2007, from http://www.hindawi.com/ ... doi=10.1155/2008/178923  
Added by: sirfragalot 12/31/2007 06:36:55 AM
      In multimedia narratives [i.e. virtual worlds and digital games], sound can generate more fear than can vision. If the sound source is on screen, it is probably less threatening than if it is acousmatic. This is instinctive.
Scruton, R. (2009). Sounds as secondary objects and pure events. In M. Nudds & C. O'Callaghan (Eds), Sounds & Perception (pp. 50–68). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 02/07/2014 02:10:14 PM
      "the 'acousmatic' experience of sound [where sounds are] emancipated from their causes"
      Scruton supports his view that sounds are separate from the objects that emit them with examples such as radio and recording -- acousmatic sound. In such a case, sounds can be grouped (streamed) together coherently without reference to their physical origin.
Stockburger, A. 2003, November 4—6 The game environment from an auditive perspective. Paper presented at Level Up, Utrecht Universiteit.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 05/15/2008 10:09:26 AM
      Acousmatic is a Pythagorean term that describes the distance between the point of hearing and the point of origin of sound, specifically to the distance separating disciples from an intoning priest hidden behind a curtain. It later became a part of the electro-acoustic and Musique Concrète tradition in its first sense above. Michel Chion uses it, and transforms its meaning somewhat, to describe particular relationships between sound and vision in film.
Stockburger, A. (2006). The rendered arena: Modalities of space in video and computer games. Unpublished thesis PhD, University of the Arts, London.  
Added by: sirfragalot 05/15/2008 03:04:43 PM
      "In a computer game, while there also exists a set of fixed relations between sound objects and visual objects, the temporal process of visualization and acousmatisation is much more flexible and open to variation. This state of affairs makes it necessary to regard acousmatic functions in a computer game as dynamic functions. There is a constant flux between user-controlled acousmatisation and visualisation on the one hand, and the scripted behaviour designed by game developers to prepare situations of suspense."
      Stockburger proposes five spatializing functions of sound objects:

  • Acousmatic function – defines the relation between a sound object and the
    visibility of the related visual element.
  • Indexical function – delivers information that is vital for the gameplay (e.g. ticking sound of bomb).
  • Spatial signature function – is present when the surrounding space affects the qualities of sound objects (e.g. echo, reverb).
  • Motion function – defines the motion of sound objects.
  • Motoric function – simulates movement or motion (motor sounds in racing or
    flying games, footstep sounds in FPS games).
WIKINDX 6.4.10 | Total resources: 1097 | Username: -- | Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography | Style: American Psychological Association (APA)


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