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Keyword:  Narrative
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Brand, J. E., Knight, S., & Majewski, J. 2003, November 4–6 The diverse worlds of computer games: A content analysis of spaces, populations, styles and narratives. Paper presented at Level Up, Utrecht Universiteit.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/11/06, 10:59 AM
      FPS games give the player little control over narrative progression as opposed to the other extreme (e.g. racing or sports games) where "the player is in control of the progression and story outcome"
Burn, A., & Schott, G. (2004). Heavy hero or digital dummy? Multimodal player-avatar relations in Final Fantasy 7. visual communication, 3(2), 213–233.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/15/06, 3:13 PM
      "One reason for comparing the playing of a computer game with a performance of oral narrative is that it foregrounds text as event, rather than as object. [However] the playing of games is iterative -- it is many text-events, all different, with a dynamic relation between the computer-game as textual resource or text in potentia, the player as a dynamic textual element, whose fingers and skills become no less a part of the game-system than the avatar's strings of code, and the player as cultural resource, interpreter and adapter of the game's resources in the production of fan art and writing."
Clair, R. (1929). The art of sound. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:17 AM
      "We must draw a distinction here between those sound effects which are amusing only by virtue of their novelty (which soon wears off), and those that help one to understand the action, and which excite emotions which could not have been roused by the sight of the pictures alone. The visual world at the birth of the cinema seemed to hold immeasurably richer promise.... However, if imitation of real noises seems limited and disappointing, it is possible that an interpretation of noises may have more of a future in it. Sound cartoons, using "real" noises, seem to point to interesting possibilities."
Darley, A. (2000). Visual digital culture: Surface play and spectacle in new media genres. London: Routledge.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/5/06, 11:59 AM
      Makes the case that narrative cinema in the early C20th. supplanted the early cinema as spectacle which was derived from vaudeville, circus, amusement parks, dioramas etc.: "...the marvellous gives way to realism and characterisation." Darley gives no reason for this.
Ekman, I. 2008, October 22–23 Psychologically motivated techniques for emotional sound in computer games. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2008, Piteå, Sweden.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/8/09, 11:14 AM
      Typically in film, sounds (especially dialogue) is used to drive the narrative; in games, sounds support player action and hence have a greater utility value as opposed to narrative value.
Eskelinen, M. (2001). The gaming situation. Game Studies, 1(1). Retrieved August 31, 2006, from  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/31/06, 2:44 PM
      "Games are seen as interactive narratives, procedural stories or remediated cinema. On top of everything else, such definitions, despite being successful in terms of influence or funding, are conceptually weak and ill-grounded, as they are usually derived from a very limited knowledge of mere mainstream drama or outdated literary theory, or both. Consequently, the seriously and hilariously obsolete presuppositions of Aristotelian drama, commedia dell'arte, Victorian novels, and Proppian folklore continue to dominate the scene."
      "According to Gerald Prince's well-known definition a narrative is "the recounting (as product and process, object and act, structure and structuration) of one or more real or fictitious events communicated by one, two or several (more or less overt) narrators to one, two or several (more or less overt) narratees." Before going into the details of this definition it is important to note one of its most obvious consequences: "a dramatic performance representing (many fascinating) events does not constitute a narrative either, since these events, rather than being recounted, occur directly on stage." (Prince 1987, 58)"

Prince, Gerald (1987) The Dictionary of Narratology. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.
      "...stories are just uninteresting ornaments or gift-wrappings to games, and laying any emphasis on studying these kinds of marketing tools is just a waste of time and energy"
Hug, D. (2011). New wine in new skins: Sketching the future of game sound design. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), Game sound technology and player interaction: concepts and developments (pp. 384–415). Hershey (PA): IGI.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/14/21, 8:37 AM
      "If the game is part of the same system as the player, the narrative world and the existential world of the player merge into one"
Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/11/06, 12:37 PM
      "Whatever is represented in speech (or to some lesser extent in writing) inevitably has to bow to the logic of time and of sequence in time. ... Human engagement with the world through speech or writing cannot escape that logic; it orders and shapes that human engagement with the world. Whatever is represented in image has to bow, equally, to the logic of space, and to the simultaneity of elements in spatial arrangements. ... 'The world narrated' is a different world to 'the world depicted and displayed'."
Malaby, T. M. (2006). Stopping play: A new approach to games. Social Science Research Network, Retrieved August 11, 2006, from  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/4/06, 11:09 AM
      "Speaking very broadly (and a little unfairly), ludology focused upon the "gameness" of games ... they fell into the trap of exceptionalism, treating games as special and distinct activities, fundamentally different from everyday life ... The narratologists, for their part (again, speaking very broadly), got another aspect right which is that games involve the construction of meaning. The problem is that, following this approach, one can end up focusing on the "story" (especially in a broad sense -- plot, etc) at the expense of the experience of contingency itself ... That is, in contrast to the ludologists' focus on experience, the narratologists where [sic] overly concerned with form, especially the extent to which the product of a game experience can become an object of reflection and interpretation."
      "...making a game is not, as some narratologists would have it, about making a "story", it is about creating the complex, implicit, contingent conditions wherein the texture of engaged human experience can happen."
Murray, J. H. (1997). Hamlet on the holodeck: The future of narrative in cyberspace. Cambridge: The MIT Press.  
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/21/06, 3:46 PM
      "A stirring narrative in any medium can be experienced as a virtual reality because our brains are programmed to tune into stories with an intensity that can obliterate the world around us."
Wasik, B. 2006, September Grand theft education: Literacy in the age of video games. Harper's Magazine, 31–39.  
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/23/06, 4:12 PM
      Steve Johnson states: "But one of the problems we have in understanding games is that we see them as being driven by their narratives. In fact, I think the narratives tend to be a vestigial part of games that has been carried over from earlier forms. When people play games, they aren't playing them for the story. They aren't playing them for a narrative arc of any kind. In fact, if you're looking for an analogy, I would say that game design is closer to architecture than it is to novel writing. The designers do create resistances to certain types of behavior and encourage other types of behavior within the space, but first and foremost, they're creating a space that can be explored in multiple ways."
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