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Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/23/23, 3:11 PM
A discussion on auditory spatial awareness. Conclusions, based mainly on case studies of blind people:

  • Auditory spatial awareness is a skill that must be learnt and is difficult to learn.
  • Different aural cultures have different abilities and there is no one sensitivity to aural space; rather a group of independent sensory skills (some more aware of spatial volumes, others more aware of objects in that space).
  • Controlled experiments showing humans have give auditory spatial awareness should be treated with care as they are artificial and, in testing one spatial factor, usually remove other potentially confusing factors.
Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the feeling of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 376–391.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/14/20, 3:36 PM
Suggest that there is a limit to the linear equation between increasing sophistication of immersive technology/level of realism and development of presence.
Corner, J. (1992). Presumption as theory: 'realism' in television studies. Screen, 33(1), 97–102.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/28/06, 11:02 AM
Defines two initial types of realism as they relate to television:

1. Verisimilitude: being like the real.
2. Reference - being about the real.
Darley, A. (2000). Visual digital culture: Surface play and spectacle in new media genres. London: Routledge.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/5/06, 11:59 AM
Claims that the idea of producing realism has dominated the computer image industry/research since the late 1970s. Realism is defined as the degree of resemblance to real-world objects with, for images, photography being the yardstick.
Doane, M. A. (1980). Ideology and the practice of sound editing and mixing. In T. de Lauretis & S. Heath (Eds), The Cinematic Apparatus (pp. 47–56). London: Macmillan.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/6/23, 2:41 PM
Spoken words reveal directly the psychological interior revealing the character on screen. While image can do this, sound is more direct. Image is best at defining the exterior (i.e. visible realism) whereas sound best defines the interior (i.e. psychological realism).
Ekman, I. 2005, Meaningful noise: Understanding sound effects in computer games. Paper presented at Digital Arts and Cultures, Kopenhagen.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/14/08, 1:21 AM
To be diegetic, game sound must be considered real in the context of the story.
A game sound that is a diegetic referent, references or signifies something real inside the game.
Ellis, S. R. (1996). Presence of mind: A reaction to Thomas Sheridan's "further musings on the psychophysics of presence". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(2), 247–259.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/26/18, 10:46 AM
In suggesting that interface performance in virtual environments  can be improved by decreasing presence, Ellis suggests removing or controlling the realism of spatial information.
McMahan, A. (2003). Immersion, engagement, and presence: A new method for analyzing 3-D video games. In M. J. P. Wolf & B. Perron (Eds), The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 67–87). New York: Routledge.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/1/18, 3:16 PM

Defining realism as one of the factors of immersion/presence, McMahan describes two parts of it: social realism and perceptual realism.

She extends Fencott's (1999) work and his argument that, because presence relies on perception (which is a mental rather than sensory/tactile state), increased presence derives from increased field of view and a strong sense of foreground and background. Fencott has derived Perceptual Opportunities which include:


  • Sureties -- indicators, signs, architectural detail
  • Shocks -- polygon leaks, poor design - anything which detracts from presence and indicates that this is merely a game
  • Surprises -- nonpredictable details that are a part of the virtual world's logic and design. 3 types of surprises

    1. Attractors - tempt the user to do something.
    2. Connectors -- similar to sureties in helping the user's orientation.
    3. Retainers -- make the user "linger and enjoy" parts of the environment.



Fencott, C. (1999). Presence and the content of virtual environments. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from http://web.onyxnet.co.u ... co.uk/pres99/pres99.htm
Poole, S. (2000). Trigger happy: Videogames and the entertainment revolution. New York: Arcade.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 7/3/21, 9:23 AM
The more realistic a character's movements may be, the more frustrated a player may become that the character cannot complete other realistic, and therefore to be expected, movements.
Ribbens, W., & Malliet, S. (2010). Perceived digital game realism: A quantitative exploration of its structure. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 19(6), 585–600.   
Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/17/18, 1:57 PM
Has a different take on authenticity than might be expected – one that is subjective rather than objective (i.e. the shotgun in Terminator is not objectively authentic but might be subjectively perceived as authentic).
WIKINDX 6.8.2 | Total resources: 1297 | Username: -- | Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography | Style: American Psychological Association (APA)