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Bruner, J. S. (1957). On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review, 64(2), 123–152.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/21/05, 2:48 PM
A section dealing with expectancy. Bruner suggests that expectancy of encountering events or objects in any context "preactivates a related array of categories" (p.137) leading to a heightened state of perceptual readiness.
Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16–20, Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/30/11, 4:15 AM

Use McMahan's (2003) three conditions that are required to "create a sense of immersion in digital games: the conventions of the game matching the user expectations, meaningful things to do for the player, and a consistent game world."



McMahan, A. (2003). Immersion, engagement, and presence: A new method for analyzing 3-D video games. In M. J. P. Wolf & B. Perron (Eds), The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 67–87). New York: Routledge.
Kramer, G. (1994). Some organizing principles for representing data with sound. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces (pp. 185–221). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/21/05, 2:49 PM
Audiation is the formation of "an imagined auditory image" and involves memory and recall. Little research has been done in this area. Sometimes called auralization, which itself is sometimes described as realistic sonic spatialization.
McMahan, A. (2003). Immersion, engagement, and presence: A new method for analyzing 3-D video games. In M. J. P. Wolf & B. Perron (Eds), The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 67–87). New York: Routledge.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/1/18, 3:16 PM

"Immersion is not wholly subject to the technology's physical dimensions nor is it wholly dependent on audio or photo realism. Three conditions are required for immersion"


  • "the user's expectations of the game or environment must match the environment's conventions fairly closely"
  • "the user's actions must have a non-trivial impact on the environment"
  • "the conventions of the world must be consistent"

These conditions are described further by Ermi (Ermi & Mäyrä 2005)



Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16–20, Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto.