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Cavalcanti, A. (1939). Sound in films. Retrieved January 16, 2006, from https://web.archive.org ... /575/sound-in-films.htm   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:23 AM
"Suggestion is always more effective in drama than statement." If sound is synchronized with image "then suggestion becomes statement." ... "Pictures are clear and specific, noises are vague."
Kracauer, S. (1960). Dialogue and sound. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from https://ifsstech.files. ... siegfried_kracauer1.pdf   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:23 AM
Talking of Eisentein and Clair's attitudes to talkies, the film "connoisseurs' preference for noises [as opposed to speech sounds] ... rested upon the belief that, as material phenomena, they evoke a reality less dangerous to the images on the screen than the kind of reality conveyed by the all-out talkie. Sounds whose material properties are featured belong to the same world as the visuals and, hence, will hardly interfere with the spectator's concern for the latter."
"Sound used contrapuntally must relate to the synchronized images in an understandable way to signify something comprehensible."
Pudovkin, V. I. (1934). Asynchronism as a principle of sound film. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from https://web.archive.org ... ne/575/asynchronism.htm   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:29 AM
As an explanation of the possibilities of asynchronous sound film, he gives an example of an urban dweller stranded in a desert who hears not sounds of the desert but sounds of the city. "...the principle elements in sound film are the aysnchronous and not the synchronous". For Pudovkin, this is how natural perception is. He points out that we tend to hear events before we see them therefore our natural vision and hearing are asynchronous.