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Ramsdell, D. A. (1978). The psychology of the hard-of-hearing and the deafened adult. In H. Davis & S. R. Silverman (Eds), Hearing and Deafness 4th ed. (pp. 499–510). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/1/20, 12:36 PM
Defines three levels of hearing of which the primitive level comprises ambient noises that "maintain our feeling of being part of a living world and contribute to our own sense of being alive. We are not conscious of the important role that these background sounds play in our comfortable merging of ourselves with the life around us because we are not aware that we hear them. [The] deaf person [...] only knows that he feels as if the world were dead."
"This primitive function of hearing relates us to a world that is constantly in change, but it relates us to it in such a way that we are not conscious of the relationship or of the feeling it establishes of being part of the environment."
There is an environmental pattern indicating change and continuing activity and there is constant change and activity in the human body too: "We have then two patterns of change always in motion, the pattern of environmental change in the world around us and the pattern of change in the human body. By far the most efficient and indispensable mechanism for "coupling" the constant activity of the human organism to nature's activity is the primitive function of hearing."
"We live in an environment in different degrees of security, and since the security is never complete, we must maintain a readiness to react, to withdraw, or to approach as need arises. The primitive function of hearing maintains this readiness to react by keeping us constantly informed of events about us that do not make enough noise to challenge our attention."
The coupling of environmental activity to human body activity "establishes an unconscious feeling of aliveness in us [as] demonstrated by the overwhelming feeling of deadness in the deafened."