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Gouk, P. (2004). Raising spirits and restoring souls: Early modern medical explanations for music's effect. In V. Erlmann (Ed.), Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound Listening and Modernity (pp. 87–105). Oxford: Berg.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/15/08, 10:18 AM
"There are many reasons why sound has been left out of mainstream European cultural history -- not least the assumption that a shift to a predominantly visualist culture took place between the Renaissance and Enlightenment."
Small, C. (1998). Musicking: The meanings of performing and listening. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/22/23, 5:15 PM
Small claims that the questions "What is the meaning of music and What is the function of music in human life? are the wrong questions to ask, for "[t]here is no such thing as music. Music is not a thing at all but an activity, something that people do."
Citing Dalhaus (1983, 4), the "concept of 'work' and not 'event' is the cornerstone of music history."

Small elaborates: "[M]usicologists . . . ascertain the real nature and contours of musical works by recourse to original texts . . . theorists . . . discover the way in which the works are constructed as objects in themselves . . . aetheticians . . . deal with the meaning of sound objects and the reasons for their effect on a listener. All are concerned with things, with musical works."

Dalhaus, C. 1983. Foundations of Music History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

"performance does not exist in order to present musical works, but rather, musical works exist in order to give performers something to perform."
Definition of musicking: "To music is to take part, in any capacity, in a musical performance, whether by performing, by listening, by rehearsing or practicing, by providing material for performance (what is called composing), or by dancing."

This is a concept that is "descriptive, not prescriptive."