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Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen. C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/7/21, 8:48 AM
Chion defines nondiegetic sound as: "sound whose supposed sound source is not only absent from the image but is also external to the story world".
Clair, R. (1929). The art of sound. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from https://web.archive.org ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:17 AM
"We must draw a distinction here between those sound effects which are amusing only by virtue of their novelty (which soon wears off), and those that help one to understand the action, and which excite emotions which could not have been roused by the sight of the pictures alone. The visual world at the birth of the cinema seemed to hold immeasurably richer promise.... However, if imitation of real noises seems limited and disappointing, it is possible that an interpretation of noises may have more of a future in it. Sound cartoons, using "real" noises, seem to point to interesting possibilities."
Curtis, S. (1992). The sound of the early Warner Bros. cartoons. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 191–203). New York: Routledge.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/13/20, 1:23 PM
In terms of film [sound], Curtiss defines the term 'diegetic' as "that which is accessible to the characters of a film".
Diegesis. (2003-2006). Wikipedia, Retrieved January 12, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diegetic   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/15/06, 12:44 PM
"Diegesis in film

In film, diegesis is the narrative that includes all the parts of the story, both those that are and those that are not actually shown on the screen (such as events that have led up to the present action; people who are being talked about; or events that are presumed to have happened elsewhere). Elements of a film can be "diegetic" or "non-diegetic." These terms are most commonly used in reference to sound in a film, but can apply to other elements. For example, an insert shot that depicts something that neither is taking place in the world of the film nor is seen, imagined, or thought by a character, is a non-diegetic insert. Titles, subtitles, and voice-over narration (with some exceptions) are also non-diegetic."
"Film sound and music

Sound in films is termed diegetic if it is part of the narrative sphere of the film. For instance, if a character in the film is playing a piano, or turns on a CD, the resulting sound is "diegetic." If, on the other hand, music plays in the background but cannot be heard by the film's characters, it is termed non-diegetic or, more accurately, extra-diegetic. The score of a film (commonly but erroneously called the "sound track") is "non-diegetic" sound.

Example: In The Truman Show, a sequence shows the characters at night, when most of them are sleeping. Soft, soothing music plays, as is common in such scenes, but we assume that it does not exist in the fictional world of the film. However, when the camera cuts to the control room of Truman's artificial world, we see that the mood music is being played by a man standing at a bank of keyboards. This abrupt shift from apparently non-diegetic to diegetic is a kind of cinematic joke."
"Diegesis has been contrasted since Plato's and Aristotle's times with mimesis, the form that is showing rather than telling the thoughts or the inner processes of characters, by external action and acting. Diegesis, however, is the main narrative in fiction and drama, the telling of the story by the author, in that he speaks to the reader or the audience directly. He may speak through his characters or may be the invisible narrator or even the all-knowing narrator who speaks from above in the form of commenting on the action or the characters.

What diegesis is

Diegesis may concern elements, such as characters, events and things within the main or primary narrative. However, the author may include elements which are not intended for the primary narrative, such as stories within stories; characters and events that may be referred to elsewhere or in historical contexts and that are therefore outside the main story and are thus presented in an extradiegetic situation."
"In diegesis the author tells the story. He is the narrator himself who presents to the audience or the readership his or his characters' thoughts and all that is in his or their imagination, their fantasies and dreams."
Diegesis (2005). In Oxford English Dictionary Online Oxford: Oxford University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/1/06, 4:16 PM
"The narrative presented by a cinematographic film or literary work; the fictional time, place, characters, and events which constitute the universe of the narrative."
Garcia, J. M. 2006, October 11–12, From heartland values to killing prostitutes: An overview of sound in the video game Grand Theft Auto Liberty City Stories. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2006, Piteå, Sweden.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/17/09, 9:49 AM
"In the most immersing environments reminders of the structural level of the game are gone and the player can concentrate on the game-world level."
Hug, D. (2011). New wine in new skins: Sketching the future of game sound design. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), Game sound technology and player interaction: concepts and developments (pp. 384–415). Hershey (PA): IGI.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/14/21, 8:37 AM
"If the game is part of the same system as the player, the narrative world and the existential world of the player merge into one"
Jørgensen, K. (2007). On transdiegetic sounds in computer games. Northern Lights, 5, 105–117.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/5/09, 10:37 AM
Transdiegetic sound is "[m]usic that has no source in the game world but still has the ability to inform about events in that world".
Kromand, D. 2008, October 22, Sound and the diegesis in survival-horror games. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2008, Piteå, Sweden.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/24/08, 11:12 AM
"The collapse of the barrier between the diegetic and non-diegetic soundscape is a strategy to build a horror atmosphere."
"The soundscape of Silent Hill 2 operates within a framework of uncertainty that constantly holds the player between knowledge and ignorance."
The lack of a barrier between diegetic/nondiegetic sounds "purposefully hinders an efficient transfer of affordance".
Whalen, Z. (2004). Play along -- an approach to videogame music. Game Studies, 4(1). Retrieved February 20, 2005, from http://www.gamestudies.org/0401/whalen/   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/6/15, 7:50 PM

"...studies of the relationship between audial and visual elements in older media (for example, film) prove useful for understanding game music because certain basic ideas (for example, diegetic versus non-diegetic musical sound) apply to videogames." (Chion 1992; 1994) See also Curtis 1992) etc.



Chion, M. (1992). Wasted words. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 104–110). New York: Routledge.
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen. C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.
Curtis, S. (1992). The sound of the early Warner Bros. cartoons. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 191–203). New York: Routledge.
"By simultaneously enriching the worlds of videogames and assisting the player's navigating the space of videogames, music is essential to the semantic operations of a videogame."