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Displaying 1 - 14  of 14 (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/23/23, 3:11 PM
Because humans have an innate ability to produce sound (cf light production), "aural architecture is dynamic, reactive and enveloping." Spaces respond sonically to the human voice and sound-making but not visually.
"An acoustic arena has both social and physical properties ... The social consequence of an acoustic arena is an acoustic community, a group of individuals who are able to hear the same sonic events."
"auditory spatial awareness also contributes to our ability to thrive in socially complex groups."
"our modern brains are an evolutionary solution to older problems; biological trade-offs over millions of years determined the properties of our auditory and cognitive cortices."
"Hemispherical specialization implies that various substrates are only partially aware of what other substrates are experiencing. In fact, what we think of as the unity of consciousness is not unified at all—it just appears that way."
"Because evolution did not provide us with a reliable mechanism to observe and communicate affect, using scientific experiments to understand the aural experience of spatiality is fraught with risks and uncertainty."
"bats in the Amazon valley shifted their vocalization from the more typical 100,000 Hz region to 8,000 Hz because the high humidity of the tropical rain forests rapidly attenuates ultrasonic signals (Griffin, 1971). Male short-tailed crickets can increase the area of their calling song by a factor of 14 by perching in treetops instead of on the ground (Paul and Walker, 1979). Fish take can take advantage of the highfrequency cutoff of shallow water to avoid detection by predators but still maintain communication with their conspecifics (Forrest, Miller, and Zagar, 1993). As these examples clearly illustrate, animals are more than merely aware of their particular acoustic environment. They use that awareness to evolve more useful communication strategies within a shared competitive auditory channel."

Griffin, D. (1971). The importance of atmospheric attenuation for the echolocation of bats (Chiroptera).
Animal Behavior 19: 55–61.
Paul, R., and Walker, T. (1979). Arboreal singing in a burrowing cricket, Anurogryllus arboreus. Jour-
nal of Comparative Physiology 132: 217–223.
Forrest, T., Miller, G., and Zagar, J. (1993). Sound propagation in shallow water: Implications for
acoustics communications by aquatic animals. Bioacoustics: The International Journal of Animal
Sound and Its Recording 4: 259–270.

"When traditional experiments involving rats in a maze were reexamined, earlier results were questioned and challenged because experimenters had not considered the rat’s ability to detect spatial properties using the auditory channel."
Böhme, G. (2000). Acoustic atmospheres: A contribution to the study of ecological acoustics. Soundscape, 1(1), 14–18.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/10/06, 8:30 AM
From the editor's introduction to the article: ecology may be defined "as the relationship between quality of an environment and people's state-of-being inside that environment."
"Atmospheres stand between subjects and objects, [they are] subjective, insofar as they are nothing without a discerning Subject."
Atmospheres combine Production Aesthetics and Reception Aesthetics. "Stage design is the paradigmatic example of this approach to atmospheres [Production Aesthetics]. On the other hand, however, atmospheres may also be experienced affectively, and one can only describe their characteristics insofar as one exposes oneself to their presence and experiences them as bodily sensations [Reception Aesthetics]."
Breinbjerg, M. (2005). The aesthetic experience of sound: Staging of auditory spaces in 3D computer games. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from http://www.aestheticsofplay.org/breinbjerg.php   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/28/06, 1:30 PM
"Adopting an ecological approach to auditory perception [in the game is a means to understanding] our natural way of listening"
Carter, P. (2004). Ambiguous traces, mishearing, and auditory space. In V. Erlmann (Ed.), Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound Listening and Modernity (pp. 43–63). Oxford: Berg.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/20/07, 5:14 PM
Listening to an acoustic ecology or a culture typically involves a hearing bias, a discrimination towards foreground sounds and against background noise. When listening to a culture, this reinforces "the proposition that culture is communication." This, for Carter, is a mistake.
Droumeva, M. (2011). An acoustic communication framework for game sound: Fidelity, verisimilitude, ecology. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), Game sound technology and player interaction: concepts and developments (pp. 131–152). Hershey (PA): IGI.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/30/21, 7:59 AM
"Fidelity reflects the development of sound in games from a technological perspective while verisimilitude reflects the cultural emergence of authenticity, immersion and suspension of disbelief in cinema"
"[...] sound's role in games is not simply descriptive, one of reflecting reality in a high-fidelity manner, but it is largely about function! Interface sounds, warning sounds, alerts, and musical earcons must continue to be part of this acoustic ecology, subject to issues of acoustic balance, masking and fidelity, as well as the informational ecology of interactive play."
"If fidelity refers to the faithfulness of sound quality in computer games, verisimilitude concerns itself with the experience and nature of truthfulness and authenticity in a game context, as conveyed through the game soundscape."
"[...] game sound has developed historically to conform to our sense of reality while at the same time it has constructed a sense of reality, particular to games, that we now expect."
"In its traditional literary/theatrical definition, verisimilitude reflects the extent to which a work of fiction exhibits realism or authenticity, or otherwise conforms to our sense of reality. In film, the notion of verisimilitude signifies the relative success of cinematography at creating an immersive, engaging fictional world of hyper-realistic proportions both in terms of image and sound, but also of intensity of emotion and experience"
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 4/26/13, 10:00 AM
Distinguishes between senses/sensation and perception. The former are "qualities of experience" or "sources of conscious qualities" while the latter are "sources of knowledge" p. 47. Gibson makes a clear distinction and argues that they operate at least semi-independently: "...the pickup of stimulus information ... does not entail having sensations. Sensation is not a prerequisite of perception, and sense impressions are not the "raw data" of perception..." pp.47-48.
Hermann, T., & Ritter, H. (2004). Sound and meaning in auditory data display. Proceedings of the IEEE, 92(4), 730–741.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/25/13, 12:29 PM
"Taking a perspective motivated by ecological acoustics, we will then gradually work backward in evolutionary history to bring into view increasingly more basic constituents of auditory perception that became particularly apparent as “ basic expression,” and will connect these to more elementary dimensions of meaning, whose deepest roots ultimately can be seen in physics, reflecting very fundamental laws that connect physical and geometrical properties of our environment to sound characteristics in a rather universal manner, invariant over a wide range of conditions and time scales, so that evolution found ample occasion and time to imprint these regularities deeply into the brains of our predecessors and ourselves."
"pitch at the extremal ends of the frequency spectrum reinforces the threatening character of intense sounds and the comforting character of weak sounds."
Kracauer, S. (1960). Dialogue and sound. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from https://ifsstech.files. ... siegfried_kracauer1.pdf   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 9/10/21, 10:23 AM
"The puzzling noises which the night is apt to produce attune the listener primarily to his physical environment because of their origin in some ungiven region of it."
"...localizable sounds do not as a rule touch off conceptual reasoning, language-bound thought; rather, they share with unidentifiable noises the quality of bringing the material aspects of reality into focus."
Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/11/06, 12:37 PM
"Whatever is represented in speech (or to some lesser extent in writing) inevitably has to bow to the logic of time and of sequence in time. ... Human engagement with the world through speech or writing cannot escape that logic; it orders and shapes that human engagement with the world. Whatever is represented in image has to bow, equally, to the logic of space, and to the simultaneity of elements in spatial arrangements. ... 'The world narrated' is a different world to 'the world depicted and displayed'."
Lastra, J. (1992). Reading, writing, and representing sound. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 65–86). New York: Routledge.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/3/06, 2:09 PM
Developing Altman's description of 1930s sound recording/representation development (spatial fidelity giving way to intelligibility): "A recording with a high degree of reflected sound, or some other indication of spatial signature, is linked to sound considered as an event, while closely-miked sound, with a relatively "contextless" spatial signature, is linked to sound considered as an intelligible structure -- as a signifying element with a larger structure."

Although this is usually aplied to speech, Lastra points out that it also applies to sound FX.
Pearsall, J. (Ed.). (1999). Concise Oxford English dictionary. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 6/20/06, 8:11 AM
Ecology: "the branch of biology concerned with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings"
Environment: "the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates"
Truax, B. (2001). Acoustic communication. 2nd ed. Westport, Conn: Ablex.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 2/9/08, 3:40 PM
"The natural soundscape, for instance, may be heard and analyzed as a system of interrelated parts whose "acoustic ecology" reflects the natural ecological balance."
Defines the term acoustic community "as any soundscape in which acoustic information plays a pervasive role in the lives of the inhabitants ... it is any system within which acoustic information is exchanged."
Westerkamp, H. (2000). Editorial. Soundscape, 1(1), 3–4.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 11/17/06, 11:17 AM
The acoustic ecology concerns "the relationship between soundscape and listener"
"We are not outside the ecology ... we are always and inevitably a part of it" (quoting Gregory Bateson).
Wrightson, K. (2000). An introduction to acoustic ecology. Soundscape, 1(1), 10–13.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/10/06, 8:36 AM

Paraphrasing Barry Truax (Truax 2001), sound is "a mediator between listener and environment."



Truax, B. (2001). Acoustic communication. 2nd ed. Westport, Conn: Ablex.