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Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the feeling of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 376–391.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 8/14/20, 3:36 PM
Not only external factors but also "psychological states and appraisal patterns of users might also affect presence."
Corner, J. (1992). Presumption as theory: 'realism' in television studies. Screen, 33(1), 97–102.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/28/06, 11:02 AM
Mentions a further emotional realism based on Ien Ang's Watching Dallas book which is "deep-level resonances with the emotional organization of the viewer"
Damasio, A. (2006). Descartes' error. Revised ed. London: Vintage. (Original work published 1994).   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/11/12, 9:04 AM
"emotion is the combination of a mental evaluative process, simple or complex, with dispositional responses to that process, mostly toward the body proper, resulting in an emotional body state, but also toward the brain itself [...] resulting in additional mental changes."
"all emotions generate feelings if you are awake and alert, but not all feelings originate in emotions. I call background feelings those that do not originate in emotions."
"If an emotion is a collection of changes in body state connected to particular mental images that have activated a specific brain system, the essence of feeling an emotion is the experience of such changes in juxtaposition to the mental images that initiated the cycle. [...] a feeling depends on the juxtaposition of an image of the body proper to an image of something else such as the visual image of a face or the auditory image of a melody."
Ekman, I. 2008, October 22–23, Psychologically motivated techniques for emotional sound in computer games. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2008, Piteå, Sweden.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/8/09, 11:14 AM
The role of sound in film (and, for Ekman, by extension games) is "to make things on screen seem real [...] to create a sense of immediacy", to support and facilitate gameplay and to provoke "sensory pleasure and displeasure."
Evans, D. (2001). Emotion: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/28/11, 7:52 AM
Ekman's basic universal, innate emotions include: joy; distress; anger; fear; surprise; disgust. "They are of rapid onset and last a few seconds at a time."
"The universality of basic emotions argues strongly for their biological nature."
Some emotions are learned and culturally specific. Perhaps such emotions exist to "help people to cope with the particular demands of their culture." (p.15)
Evens, A. (2005). Sound ideas: Music, machines, and experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 3/1/06, 1:02 PM
"The reproduction of sound is not a matter of physics but of affect and percept."
Ihde, D. (2010). Embodied technics. Automatic Press / VIP.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/10/16, 8:58 AM
Technological mediation: "every change in our newly magnified world is also a change in our embodied experience"
Niedenthal, P. M. (2007). Embodying emotion. Science, 316, 1002–1005.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 1/26/11, 1:57 AM
"Through the interconnections of the populations of neurons that were active during the original experience, a partial multimodal reenactment of the experience is produced. Critical for such an account, one reason that only parts of the original neural states are reactivated is that attention is selectively focused on the aspects of the experience that are the most salient and important for the individual. [...] Because emotions are salient and functional, this aspect of experience will certainly be preserved."
"...observational learning is supported by a reenactment of the emotional experience of the model in the observer."
There is a temporal cost to switching processing between the affective system and sensory modalities and there is evidence that "affective properties of concepts are simulated in the emotional system when the properties are the subject of active thought."
Owren, M. J., & Bachorowski, J.-A. (2003). Reconsidering the evolution of nonlinguistic communication: The case of laughter. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27(3), 183–200.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 5/5/09, 9:12 AM
Arguing for affect-induction responses to primate vocalizations, the authors argue that: "The affect-induction approach differs from representational accounts in arguing that the primary function of calling is to influence listener attention, arousal, and emotion rather than to transmit information."
Differentiating between affect-induction and representational theories: "signals are used not to convey information about underlying state, but rather to influence perceiver affect and associated behavior."
Shilling, R., Zyda, M., & Wardynski, E. C. 2002, November 30, Introducing emotion into military simulation and videogame design: America’s Army: Operations and VIRTE. Paper presented at GameOn, London.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 12/19/10, 6:19 AM
"[...] emotional arousal has a positive impact on learning, performance, and sense of immersion in virtual environments."
"Results indicated increased physiological responses on all measures in the sound versus no sound condition" and the authors use this to argue that "the audio component of a videogame or simulation contributes significantly to the emotional response of the participants".
Szabó Gendler, T. (2010). Intuition, imagination, & philosophical methodology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard 10/21/23, 6:42 AM
Explaining the 'paradox of fictional emotions' which "involves a jointly inconsistent but individually plausible trio of claims. According to the paradox, it is simultaneously true that a) we have genuine and rational emotional responses towards certain imaginary characters and situations while b) believing those characters and situations to be purely fictional. But it is also true that c) in order for us to have a genuine and rational emotional responses towards a character (or situation), we must not believe that the character (or situation) is purely fictional."

SG rejects the 3rd of these conditions in this chapter.
SG follows the work of Antonio Damasio and Paul Harris in suggesting that it is not necessary to believe situations and characters to be non-fictional in order to have real emotional responses towards them. "Rather, we will suggest, our cognitive architecture is such that without the tendency to feel (something relevantly akin to) real emotions in the case of merely imagined situations, we would be largely unable to engage in practical reasoning."
Affective contagion: "There are numerous occasions where the mere contemplation of an emotionally charged situation causes the subject to behave as if the situation were probable enough to influence prudent behavior." (p.246)

"though there may well be differences in intensity between emotional responses to real and imagined scenarios, quarantining is decidedly ineffective, and contagion is the norm." (p.247)

Hence the role emotion plays in rational thinking and decision making (cf Damasio).