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Leighton, T. G. (2016). Are some people suffering as a result of increasing mass exposure of the public to ultrasound in air? Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 472(2185). 
Added by: sirfragalot (2020-12-19 12:25:00)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2015.0624
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1364-5021
BibTeX citation key: Leighton2016
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Categories: General
Keywords: Ultrasound
Creators: Leighton
Collection: Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Views: 9/13
Views index: 61%
Popularity index: 29.5%
Abstract
"New measurements indicate that the public are being exposed, without their knowledge, to airborne ultrasound. Existing guidelines are insufficient for such exposures; the vast majority refers to occupational exposure only (where workers are aware of the exposure, can be monitored and can wear protection). Existing guidelines are based on an insufficient evidence base, most of which was collected over 40 years ago by researchers who themselves considered it insufficient to finalize guidelines, but which produced preliminary guidelines. This warning of inadequacy was lost as nations and organizations issued ‘new’ guidelines based on these early guidelines, and through such repetition generated a false impression of consensus. The evidence base is so slim that few reports have progressed far along the sequence from anecdote to case study, to formal scientific controlled trials and epidemiological studies. Early studies reported hearing threshold shifts, nausea, headache, fatigue, migraine and tinnitus, but there is insufficient research on human subjects, and insufficient measurement of fields, to assess what health risk current occupational and public exposures might produce. Furthermore, the assumptions underpinning audiology and physical measurements at high frequencies must be questioned: simple extrapolation of approaches used at lower frequencies does not address current unknowns. Recommendations are provided."
  
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