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Vroomen, J., & Keetels, M. (2010). Perception of intersensory synchrony: A tutorial review. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 871–884. 
Added by: sirfragalot (07/19/2021 12:00:56 PM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.3758/APP.72.4.871
BibTeX citation key: Vroomen2010
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Binding problem, Perceptual synchrony
Creators: Keetels, Vroomen
Publisher: Springer (Berlin)
Collection: Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics
Views: 2/7
"For most multisensory events, observers perceive synchrony among the various senses (vision, audition, touch), despite the naturally occurring lags in arrival and processing times of the different information streams. A substantial amount of research has examined how the brain accomplishes this. In the present article, we review several key issues about intersensory timing, and we identify four mechanisms of how intersensory lags might be dealt with: by ignoring lags up to some point (a wide window of temporal integration), by compensating for predictable variability, by adjusting the point of perceived synchrony on the longer term, and by shifting one stream directly toward the other."
pp.871-872   "The perception of time, however, and, in particular, synchrony among the senses, is not straightforward, because no sense organ registers time on an absolute scale. Moreover, to perceive synchrony, the brain must deal with differences in physical and neural transmission times. Sounds, for example, travel through air much more slowly than does light (330 vs. 300,000,000 m/sec), whereas no physical transmission time through air is involved for tactile stimulation, which is usually presented directly at the body surface. The neural processing time also differs among the senses, being typically slower for visual stimuli than for auditory stimuli (approximately 50 vs. 10 msec, respectively), whereas, for touch, the brain may have to take into account where the stimulation originated, because the traveling time is longer from the toes to the brain than from the nose (the typical conduction velocity is 55 m/sec, which results in a ~30-msec difference between toe and nose for a distance of 1.60 m; Macefield, Gandevia, & Burke, 1989). Because of these physical and neural differences, it has been argued that auditory and visual information arrives synchronously at the primary sensory cortices only if the event occurs at a distance of approximately 10–15 m from the observer. This has been called the horizon of simultaneity (Pöppel, 1985; Pöppel, Schill, & von Steinbüchel, 1990), assuming that, arguably, synchrony is perceived at the primary sensory cortices. Sounds should thus appear to arrive before visual stimuli if the audio–visual event is within 15 m of the observer, whereas vision should arrive before sounds for events farther away. Surprisingly, however, despite these naturally occurring lags among the senses, observers perceive intersensory synchrony for most multisensory events in the external world and not only for those at 15 m. Only in exceptional circumstances, such as the thunder that is heard afterthe lightning, is a single multisensory event perceived as being separated in time."

Pöppel, E. (1985). Grenzen des Bewußtseins. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. [Translated as Mindworks: Time and conscious ex- perience. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.]

Pöppel, E., Schill, K., & von Steinbüchel, N. (1990). Sensory inte- gration within temporally neutral systems states: A hypothesis. Natur- wissenschaften, 77, 89-91. doi:10.1007/BF01131783

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Binding problem Perceptual synchrony
p.871   "the assumption of unity. It states that, as information from different modalities share more (amodal) properties, the more likely it is that the brain treats them as originating from a common object or source. . . Without doubt, the most important amodal property is temporal coincidence . . . From this perspective, one expects intersensory interactions to occur if, and only if, information from the different sense organs reaches the brain at around the same time; otherwise, separate events are perceived, rather than a single multisensory one."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Binding problem Perceptual synchrony
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