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Rativa, A. S., Postma, M., & van Zaanen, M. (2022). The uncanny valley of a virtual animal. Cpmputer Animation and Virtual Worlds, 2022(e2043), 1–21. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/22/22, 4:07 PM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1002/cav.2043
BibTeX citation key: Rativa2022
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Categories: General
Keywords: Uncanny
Creators: Postma, Rativa, van Zaanen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons (New York)
Collection: Cpmputer Animation and Virtual Worlds
Views: 6/24
Abstract
"Virtual robots,including virtual animals, are expected to play a major role within affective and aesthetic interfaces, serious games, video instruction, and the personalization of educational instruction. Their actual impact, however, will very much depend on user perception of virtual characters as the uncanny valley hypothesis has shown that the design of virtual characters determines user expe riences. In this article, we investigated whether the uncanny valley effect, which has already been found for the human-like appearance of virtual characters,can also be found for animal-like appearances. We conducted an online study(N=163) in which six different animal designs were evaluated in terms of the following properties: familiarity, commonality, naturalness, attractiveness, interestingness, and animateness. The study participants differed in age (under10–60years) and origin (Europe, Asia, North America, and South America). For the evaluation of the results, we ranked the animal-likeness of the character using both expert opinion and participant judgments. Next to that, we investigated the effect of movement and morbidity. The results confirm the existence of the uncanny valley effect for virtual animals, especially with respectto familiarity and commonality, for both still and moving images. The effectwas particularly pronounced for morbid images. For naturalness and attractiveness, the effect was only present in the expert-based ranking, but not in the participant-based ranking. No uncanny valley effect was detected for interestingness and animateness. This investigation revealed that the appearance of virtual animals directly affects user perception and thus, presumably, impacts user experience when used in applied settings."
  
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