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Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16–20 Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/5/06, 10:44 AM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/30/11, 4:15 AM)
Resource type: Proceedings Article
BibTeX citation key: Ermi2005
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Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion
Creators: Ermi, Mäyrä
Publisher: DiGRA (Toronto)
Collection: Changing Views -- Worlds in Play
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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Abstract
This paper presents a gameplay experience model, assesses its potential as a tool for research and presents some directions for future work. The presented model was born from observations among game-playing children and their non-player parents, which directed us to have a closer look at the complex nature of gameplay experience. Our research led into a heuristic gameplay experience model that identifies some of the key components and processes that are relevant in the experience of gameplay, with a particular focus on immersion. The model includes three components: sensory, challenge-based and imaginative immersion (SCI-model). The classification was assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires filled in by informants who played different popular games. It was found that the gameplay experiences related to these games did indeed differ as expected in terms of the identified three immersion components.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Notes
Discussion of immersion with some attention paid to the role of game audio in this. Sound is part of the sensory immersion (as opposed to imaginative and challenge-based immersion) and, of the 13 games studies, Half-Life 2 had the highest sensory immersion and, according to the authors, had the greatest overall immersion. Like Quake 3 Arena, it is a FPS game.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Quotes
   Paraphrasing Pine and Gilmore (1999), "immersion means becoming physically or virtually a part of the experience itself"

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy: Work is theatre & every business a stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Immersion
   Using Pine and Gilmore's (1999) two dimensions of experience, participation (passive <--> active)and connection (absorption <--> immersion), the authors define immersion as "becoming physically or virtually a part of the experience itself" as opposed to absorption which is "directing attention to an experience that is brought to mind" and use these two definitions to define four realms of experience:

  • Entertainment -- absorption and passive participation
  • Educational -- absorption and active participation
  • Aesthetic -- immersion and passive participation
  • Escapist -- immersion and active participation


Gameplay is escapist.

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy: Work is theatre & every business a stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Immersion
   Use McMahan's (2003) three conditions that are required to "create a sense of immersion in digital games: the conventions of the game matching the user expectations, meaningful things to do for the player, and a consistent game world."

McMahan, A. (2003). Immersion, engagement, and presence: A new method for analyzing 3-D video games. In M. J. P. Wolf & B. Perron (Eds), The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 67–87). New York: Routledge.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Conformity & expectation
   An example of one of the questionnaire statements relating to sensory immersion: "The sounds of the game overran the other sounds from the environment".   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
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