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Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 
Added by: sirfragalot (9/30/05, 1:44 PM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (4/26/13, 10:00 AM)
Resource type: Book
BibTeX citation key: Gibson1966
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Categories: General
Keywords: Acoustic ecology, perception, Sensation, Stimulus
Creators: Gibson
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin (Boston)
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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An excellent introduction to perception as opposed to sensation containing many ideas later used in the field of ecological acoustics.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
pp.28-29, Chapter 1   A useful definition of the word 'stimulus' from the psychological point of view: signifies "an object of some sort that is presented to or applied to an individual, rat or human, in a psychological experiment. ... It is what the investigator of behavior has arranged to control, while keeping everything else in the situation constant." p.28

Gibson describes a different meaning used in sensory physiology (light, smell, sound etc.) and states that there is a difference between stimuli and the sources of such stimuli. This leads to the distinction between the stimulus object and the "field of potential stimulation emanating from the source." p.28. An observer with receptive equipment is required in order for the stimulus to be effective or not.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Stimulus
p.40, Chapter 2   Further definition of 'stimulus' for sensory physiology"

  1. A stimulus has a pattern in space -- what Gibson terms 'adjacent order'.
  2. A stimulus is structured in time - 'successive order'.
  3. As a consequence, a stimulus contains elements of constancy and elements of change.
  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Stimulus
pp.47-48, Chapter 3   Distinguishes between senses/sensation and perception. The former are "qualities of experience" or "sources of conscious qualities" while the latter are "sources of knowledge" p. 47. Gibson makes a clear distinction and argues that they operate at least semi-independently: "...the pickup of stimulus information ... does not entail having sensations. Sensation is not a prerequisite of perception, and sense impressions are not the "raw data" of perception..." pp.47-48.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Acoustic ecology perception Sensation
p.86   "The modern world of earphones, telephones, or loudspeakers does some violence to the natural orienting tendency of the auditory system toward sources." According to Gibson, this is a natural consequence of the auditory system's ability to act both as a proprioceptor (our voice, our breathing etc. are heard inside the head) and as an exteroceptor (responsive to sound outside the body).   Added by: sirfragalot
p.86   In an argument against physical acoustics and Fourier analysis in particular, Gibson states: "It treats physical sound as a phenomenon sui generis, instead of as a phenomenon that specifies the course of an ecological event; sound as pure physics, instead of sound as potential stimulus information."   Added by: sirfragalot
p.49   Lists five perceptual systems:

  • Orienting system
  • Auditory system
  • Haptic system
  • Taste-smell system
  • Visual system
  Added by: sirfragalot
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