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Bach, D. R., Neuhoff, J. G., Perrig, W., & Seifritz, E. (2008). Looming sounds as warning signals: The function of motion cues. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 74(1), 28–33. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (4/27/14, 8:57 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2009.06.004
BibTeX citation key: Bach2008
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Categories: General
Keywords: Alarms, Fear
Creators: Bach, Neuhoff, Perrig, Seifritz
Collection: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Views: 4/476
Sounds with increasing intensity can act as intrinsic warning cues by signalling that the sound source is approaching. However, intensity change is not always the dominant motion cue to a moving sound, and the effects of simple rising intensity sounds versus sounds with full three dimensional motion cues have not yet been directly compared. Here, we examined skin conductance responses, phasic alertness, and perceptual and explicit emotional ratings in response to approaching and receding sounds characterised either by full motion cues or by intensity change only. We found a stronger approach/recede effect in sounds with full motion cues for skin conductance response amplitude, suggesting sustained mobilisation of resources due to their greater saliency. Otherwise, the approach/recede effect was comparable in sounds with and without full motion cues. Overall, approaching sounds elicited greater skin conductance responses and phasic alertness, and loudness change was estimated higher. Also, they were rated as more unpleasant, potent, arousing and intense, and the probability of such sounds to signal a salient event or threat was rated higher. Several of these effects were modulated by sex. In summary, this study supports the suggestion that intensity change is the dominant motion cue mediating the effects of approaching sound sources, thus clarifying the interpretation of previous studies using such stimuli. Explicit emotional appraisal of such sounds shows a strong directional asymmetry and thus may reflect their implicit warning properties.
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