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Loomis, J. M. (1992). Distal attribution and presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 113–119. 
Added by: sirfragalot (07/27/2018 08:42:27 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (09/11/2018 05:19:04 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/pres.1992.1.1.113
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Loomis1992
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Distal attribution, Embodied cognition, Externalization, Immersion, Other-presence, Presence, Presence (definition), Telepresence
Creators: Loomis
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 6/116
Notes
Makes a comparison between presence/telepresence and externalization/distal attribution (from the realm of psychology)
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
Quotes
p.113   Externalization or distal attribution: "that most of our perceptual experience, though originating with stimulation of our sense organs, is referred to external space beyond the limits of our sensory organs."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Distal attribution Embodied cognition Externalization Immersion Presence
p.116   "for vision and audition [...] the resulting perceptions are always mediate, never direct, for the central nervous system constructs what is perceived."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Distal attribution Embodied cognition Externalization Immersion Presence
p.117   "presence and distal attribution beyond the limits of some extending device (probe, teleoperator, virtual display) are not fundamentally different phenomena. Rather, they differ only that true presence occurs when the sensory data support only the interpretation of being somewhere other than where the sense organs are located; whereas, distal attribution to a remote location occurs when the sensory data represent both the remote location and that device or linkage that connects the observer with that remote location."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Distal attribution Embodied cognition Externalization Immersion Presence Telepresence
Paraphrases
p.114   There is a phenomenal world that can be divided into 'self' and 'nonself' – the physical self is closely tied to the phenomenal self but not necessarily (e.g. phantom limbs).

Distal attribution is the process of identifying sensory experience with a phenomenally external  space or the nonself. This identification (and thus distal attribution) results when afference (sensory input) is "lawfully related" to efference (motorsensory actions) – e.g. I do something and the sensory feedback I get accords with that action.

Loomis hypothesizes that "attribution to self occurs when afference and efference are completely unrelated or independent."

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Distal attribution Embodied cognition Externalization Immersion Presence
p.116   In arguing that distal attribution re telepresence is most clearly felt when the operators have become skilled with the equipment, Loomis suggests that with regard to a lawful relationship between efference and afference, the operator must be able to model this relationship. This 'linkage' becomes transparent with experience and this leads to the externalization of the distal environment.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Distal attribution Embodied cognition Externalization Immersion Presence Telepresence
p.117   Acknowledging that the operator of a teleoperation system experiences sensory information from remote/simulated environment and physical environment and that this often conflicts, Loomis makes use of Polyani's notions of subsidiary awareness and focal awareness. Where sensory stimulation from the remote environment is insufficient for true presence, the operator experiences a subsidiary awareness of the physical environment and/or teleoperation system he/she is actually in/using despite a focal awareness of the remote environment.

True telepresence is not possible as it is not possible to present the operator with precisely the same sensory stimulation they would receive were they to be actually in the remote environment.

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Distal attribution Externalization Immersion Presence Telepresence Reality/Virtuality/Actuality
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