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Keetels, M., & Vroomen, J. (2012). Perception of synchrony between the senses. In M. M. Murray & M. T. Wallace (Eds), The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes (pp. 147–177). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. 
Added by: sirfragalot (7/19/21, 12:06 PM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (8/31/21, 4:15 PM)
Resource type: Book Article
Peer reviewed
BibTeX citation key: Keetels2012
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Categories: General
Keywords: Multimodality, Perceptual synchrony, Presence
Creators: Keetels, Murray, Vroomen, Wallace
Publisher: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis (Boca Raton (FL))
Collection: The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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Much the same (word-for-word) as (Vroomen & Keetels 2010).

Vroomen, J., & Keetels, M. (2010). Perception of intersensory synchrony: A tutorial review. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 871–884.
Added by: sirfragalot  
pp.147-148   "The perception of time and, in particular, synchrony between the senses is not straightforward because there is no dedicated sense organ that registers time in an absolute scale. Moreover, to perceive synchrony, the brain has to deal with differences in physical (outside the body) and neural (inside the body) transmission times. Sounds, for example, travel through air much slower than visual information does (i.e., 300,000,000 m/s for vision vs. 330 m/s for audition), whereas no physical transmission time through air is involved for tactile stimulation as it is presented directly at the body surface. The neural processing time also differs between the senses, and it is typically slower for visual than it is for auditory stimuli (approximately 50 vs. 10 ms, respectively), whereas for touch, the brain may have to take into account where the stimulation originated from as the traveling time from the toes to the brain is longer than from the nose (the typical conduction velocity is 55 m/s, which results in a 30 ms difference between toe and nose when this distance is 1.60 m; Macefield et al. 1989). Because of these differences, one might expect that for audiovisual events, only those occurring at the so-called “horizon of simultaneity” (Poppel 1985; Poppel et al. 1990)—a distance of approximately 10 to 15 m from the observer—will result in the approximate synchronous arrival of auditory and visual information at the primary sensory cortices. Sounds will arrive before visual stimuli if the audiovisual event is within 15 m from the observer, whereas vision will arrive before sounds for events farther away. Although surprisingly, despite these naturally occurring lags, observers perceive intersensory synchrony for most multisensory events in the external world, and not only for those at 15 m."

Macefield G, Gandevia S.C, Burke D. Conduction velocities of muscle and cutaneous afferents in the upper and lower limbs of human subjects. Brain. 1989;112(6):1519–32.

Pöppel E. Grenzes des bewusstseins, Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstal, translated as Mindworks: Time and Conscious Experience. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 1985. 1988.

Poppel E, Schill K, von Steinbuchel N. Sensory integration within temporally neutral systems states: A hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften. 1990;77(2):89–91.

  Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Multimodality Perceptual synchrony Presence
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