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Szewczak, J. M., & Arnett, E. (2006). Ultrasound emissions from wind turbines as a potential attractant to bats: A preliminary investigation. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/27/22, 10:49 AM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/27/22, 3:09 PM)
Resource type: Report/Documentation
BibTeX citation key: Szewczak2006
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Categories: General
Keywords: Ultrasound
Creators: Arnett, Szewczak
Views: 6/23
"Although audible acoustic emissions from wind turbines have been extensively measured (i.e.,
frequencies below 20 kHz), the ultrasound emissions remain uncharacterized for most wind
turbines. We performed a basic characterization of ultrasound emissions from a variety of wind
turbines to determine whether ultrasound emissions may contribute to attracting bats toward
wind turbines with consequential fatalities from rotor strikes. We were particularly interested in
characterizing ultrasound emissions from the 1.5 MW NEG Micon turbines because of the
documented bat mortality from these turbines operating at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center
in West Virginia. All turbines sampled generated only minor ultrasound above ambient sound
levels. The majority of acoustic energy was emitted at audible frequencies and trailed off rapidly
above audible frequencies with a similar profile to that of ambient wind noise. Measured from
ground level, 34 m directly below the 1.5 MW NEG Micon wind turbine rotors, these turbines
emitted approximately 5, 3, and 2 dB above ambient at 20, 30, and 40 kHz respectively. Above
50 kHz there was no significant difference from ambient sound levels. We conclude that
ultrasound emissions, as measured from the ground-level, from these wind turbines do not likely
play a significant role in attracting bats. However, ultrasound could be emitted from other
turbines we did not measure during this preliminary investigation, or from the nacelle of turbines,
possibly warranting further investigation."
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