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Howard, C. Q., Hansen, C. H., & Zander, A. C. (2004). A review of current airborne ultrasound exposure limits. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 21(3), 253–257. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (11/28/22, 8:25 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
BibTeX citation key: Howard2004
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Hearing, Ultrasound
Creators: Hansen, Howard, Zander
Collection: Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand
Views: 1/17
"Research has indicated that airborne ultrasonic sound impinging on the ear drums of humans has the potential to cause undesirable effects. The United States of America’s Occupational Health and Safety Administration have changed their guidelines to permit an additional 30dB increase in the acceptable ultrasonic amplitudes under certain conditions. This paper contains a review of current recommended acceptable exposure limits from standards organisations around the world."

Deals with airborne ultrasound up to 50kHz.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.254   Concensus on ultrasound exposure in SPL below 4 hours.
Sound Pressure Level
(dB re 20mPa)
20 75
25 110
31.5 110
40 110
50 110


Later (p. 258) cites recommendations (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) suggesting that exposure levels may be 30dB higher than the above.

  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Hearing Ultrasound
p.259   Claims that the output at 1m of some parabolic speakers is +130dB and even as high as 140dB.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Hearing Ultrasound
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