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Pollack, G. S. (2016). Hearing for defense. In G. S. Pollack, A. C. Mason, A. N. Popper & R. R. Fay (Eds), Insect Hearing (pp. 81–98). Switzerland: Springer Nature. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (12/3/22, 4:23 PM)   
Resource type: Book Article
Peer reviewed
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 978-3-319-28888-8
BibTeX citation key: Pollack2016
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Hearing, Insects, Ultrasound
Creators: Fay, Mason, Pollack, Popper
Publisher: Springer Nature (Switzerland)
Collection: Insect Hearing
Views: 1/14
"The appearance of echolocating bats approximately 65 million years ago presented a life-or-death challenge to nocturnally active insects, particularly those that fly at night. In response, ultrasound-sensitive ears and bat-avoidance behaviors have evolved repeatedly in insects. Avoidance responses include steering away from a distant bat, last-chance maneuvers such as diving to the ground or flying erratically to avoid capture in close encounters, and sound production to startle the bat, to warn it of the prey’s distastefulness or to interfere with the bat's ability to echolocate. Some bat-avoiding insects use ultrasonic signals for intraspecific communication, presenting them with the challenge of discriminating between potential predators and mates. Evolution of the predator–prey relationship between bats and insects is ongoing, with each participant adopting new strategies to counter those of its opponent."
PDF is of entire book.

The Texas field cricket Gryllus texensis (found in urban environments and attracted to lights) is of the order Orthoptera and has an ultrasound threshold of c. 70–75dBSPL at 30kHz (pp.82–84).

Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
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