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Griffin, D. R., & Galambos, R. (1941). The sensory basis of obstacle avoidance by flying bats. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 86(3), 481–506. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/31/23, 9:17 AM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1002/jez.1400860310
BibTeX citation key: Griffin1941
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Categories: General
Keywords: Bats, Ultrasound
Creators: Galambos, Griffin
Publisher: Wiley Online Library
Collection: Journal of Experimental Zoology
Views: 7/34
"The sensory control of obstacle avoidance during flight in a standard test situation has been determined by means of temporary deprivation procedures (gagging to prevent production of supersonic notes, blindfolding, plugging the ears). Blindfolded bats avoid obstacles as well as bats under normal conditions. Gagging or plugging of the ears produces large decrements in accuracy of avoidance. Plugging of one ear also increases the frequency of hitting obstacles. "Flying bats detect obstacles in their path by (1) emitting supersonic notes; (2) hearing these sound waves when reflected back to them by the obstacles; and (3) detecting the position of the obstacle by localizing the source of this reflected sound.""
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