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Güttler, C., & Johansson, T. D. Spatial principles of level-design in multi-player first-person shooters. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 2nd workshop on Network and system support for games, Redwood City, California. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (1/14/05, 12:29 PM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Resource type: Proceedings Article
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1-58113-734-6
BibTeX citation key: Guttler2003
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Categories: Game Design
Keywords: First Person Shooters, Visual Space
Creators: Güttler, Johansson
Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (Redwood City, California)
Collection: Proceedings of the 2nd workshop on Network and system support for games
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Basing itself on a theoretical discussion and experiments, this paper outlines the basic spatial principles of level design in multi-player first-person shooters with special reference to Counter-Strike (Sierra). In this manner, the paper seeks to outline a heuristics of level design in firstperson shooters. The thesis of the paper is that a consistent examination of a game's gameplay, its agents, and spatial components is necessary for the development of a design method that will lead to ultimate level design.Setting off from a theoretical discussion of the terms gameplay and emergence, the paper starts by establishing some basic characteristics of multiplayer shooters. The concept of emergence leads to a distinction of the unique features of multi-play and teamplay, and notions of gameplay help us to map out the basic spatial properties of the game environment and its staging of player strategies and tactical choice. The key concept in the principles of spatiality in level design advanced here is the socalled collision point; the location that marks the clash of players and hence by the set of relevant tactical choices to be made by the teams.To demonstrate the empirical basis and possible application in practical level design, the paper provides an analysis of a design and a re-design of a Counter-Strike map (de_type). These experiments demonstrate the pros and cons of various design solutions and point at the basic spatial principles referred to above.The paper affirms that it does make sense to regard level design as tool for controlling the gameplay and the game's progression. Also it affirms that it is possible by means of a critical and systematical approach to distinguish between good and bad level-design. Thus a set of heuristics is suggested as a set of guidelines that could lead to better level-design for practitioners.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Using Counter-Strike as an example, an investigation of what (visually and structurally) makes the "ultimate level". Nothing about audio. While English is obviously not the authors' first language, the editing is so poor as to render the meaning of some sections ambiguous or opaque.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
p.162   Discussing the concept of a COunter-Strike "map" (level), state that it is better to perceive of maps as "spatial abstractions of levels."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.163   Use the term "collision points" to designate areas of virtual space where teams meet while carrying out their missions and "where the result of the game is often decided." These are not visually indicated in the map but arise out of possible team route interceptions or locations critical to the mission. A "reasonable interception of probably team routes" is a requirement of good level design.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.160   Discusses Jesper Jull's ideas of games of emergence and games of progression and equates these two respectively to multiplayer and single-player (FPS) games.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard