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Sopory, P., & Dillard, J. P. (2002). The persuasive effects of metaphor: A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 28(3), 382–419. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (5/23/05, 11:16 PM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Sopory2002
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Categories: General
Keywords: Metaphor
Creators: Dillard, Sopory
Collection: Human Communication Research
Views: 14/944
Empirical investigations of metaphor’s persuasive effects have produced mixed results. In an effort to integrate the literature, we present a review and meta-analytic summary of existing studies. Six explanations for the potential suasory advantage of metaphor over literal language were reviewed: (a) pleasure or relief, (b) communicator credibility, (c) reduced counterarguments, (d) resource-matching, (e) stimulated elaboration, and (f) superior organization. Next, a meta-analysis was conducted and the impact of seven moderator variables was tested. The overall effect for the metaphor-literal comparison for attitude change was r = .07, which supported the claim that metaphors enhance persuasion. The effect rose to r = .42 under optimal conditions, when a single, nonextended metaphor was novel, had a familiar target, and was used early in a message. Metaphor appeared to exert a small effect on perceptions of source dynamism (r = .06), but showed no demonstrable impact on competence (r = -.01) or character (r = -.02). Of the six theories considered, the superior organization explanation of metaphor’s persuasive impact was most supported by the results.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
Is metaphor more persuasive than literal language? Contains useful definitions of metaphor and various hypotheses as to its efficaciousness. An overview and (re-)evaluation of existing research.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
pp.383–384   Metaphor:
"A is B"

where A is the target and B is the base.

There are a variety of theories presented here as to what a linguistic metaphor is.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard