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Laurel, B. (1993). Computers as theatre. New York: Addison-Wesley. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (1/23/06, 3:50 PM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (5/15/08, 10:25 AM)
Resource type: Book
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 0-201-55060-1
BibTeX citation key: Laurel1993
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Categories: General
Keywords: Diegetic/non-diegetic, Drama, Immersion, Interface Design, Kinaesthetics, Narrative, Theatre
Creators: Laurel
Publisher: Addison-Wesley (New York)
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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p.1   States that the reason early users of CRT displays hit on a game to demonstrate prototype graphics software (MIT 1962 spacewars) was "its capacity to represent action in which humans could participate."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Interaction
p.8   A good definition of a virtual object:
"..may be one that has no real-world equivalent, but the persuasiveness of its representation allows us to respond to it as if it were real."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Virtual environment
p.160   "If "natural" sound (as opposed to speech or music) is an aspect of an environment, it must be employed consistently; that is, the causal relationships between sound and other modalities must be preserved. When things fall down (in a world that has sounds), they go "boom.""   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.161   "[t]ight linkage between visual, kinaesthetic, and auditory modalities is the key to the sense of immersion that is created by many computer games, simulations and virtual-reality systems"   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Immersion Kinaesthetics
pp.164–165   "...we tend to expect that the modalities involved in a representation will have roughly the same "resolution." ... A computer game that incorporates breathtakingly high-resolution, high-speed animation but produces only little beeps seems brain-damaged."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.207   " is well known in the folklore of computer game design that high-quality audio makes people perceive visual displays to have higher resolution."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
pp.40–48   Laurel develops Aristotle's four causes (Poetics) and applies them to theatre:

  1. Formal cause. The plot or complete action subsuming form, genre etc.
  2. Material cause. The enactment of a performance: words, sound, props, art etc. Spectacle.
  3. Efficient cause. The skills and tools of all personnel contributing to the play.
  4. End cause. Catharsis. Audience response. The reactions and emotions aroused.
  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Poetics
pp.62–63   Discussing four criteria of characters from Aristotle's Poetics:

  1. Characters must be good in the sense of successfully carrying their function within the play - ability to transfer thought into action.
  2. Characters and their traits must be appropriate to the actions they enact.
  3. Characters must be probably in terms of understood reality. Logical causal connections between thought, characteristic straits and action.
  4. Characters must be consistent. No arbitrary changes.
  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Poetics
pp.94–95   Makes the case that human - computer activities are more akin to drama than narrative:

  1. Between the two, time is different, has a different scale.
  2. Narrative is description, drama is action.
  3. Drama is more cathartic, less episodic, has unity of action.
  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard