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Zagal, J. P., Mateas, M., Fernández-Vara, C., Hochhalter, B., & Lichti, N. 2005, June 16–20, Towards an ontological language for game analysis. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/28/06, 11:20 AM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Resource type: Proceedings Article
BibTeX citation key: Zagal2005
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Categories: Game Design, Typologies/Taxonomies
Keywords: Ontology, Sound objects
Creators: Fernández-Vara, Hochhalter, Lichti, Mateas, Zagal
Publisher: DiGRA (Toronto)
Collection: Changing Views -- Worlds in Play
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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The Game Ontology Project (GOP) is creating a framework for describing, analyzing and studying games, by defining a hierarchy of concepts abstracted from an analysis of many specific games. GOP borrows concepts and methods from prototype theory as well as grounded theory to achieve a framework that is always growing and changing as new games are analyzed or particular research questions are explored. The top level of the ontology (interface, rules, goals, entities, and entity manipulation) is described as well as a particular ontological entry. Finally, by engaging in three short discussions centered on relevant games studies research questions, the ontology s utility is demonstrated.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
An attempt to name and describe game elements as an aid to understanding and designing games.

Not a taxonomy but an ontology (a theory of reality -- in this case built upon prototype theory -- as opposed to epistemology, the theory of knowledge) in that the organisation of games' elements is the result rather than an organisation of games themselves.

This is a work in progress.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
   There are five elements at the top level of the ontology:

  1. Interface: "mapping between the embodied reactions of the player and the manipulation of game entities"
  2. Rules: constraints and possibilities. Gamplay and Gameworld (define the virtual world's physics for example) rules.
  3. Goals: "define success in the game". Short-term or long-term goals.
  4. Entities: "objects within the game that the player manages, modifies or interacts with at some level"
  5. Entity Manipulation: "encompasses the alteration of the game mode either by the player or by in-game entities". Some entities have abilities (permanent or temporary) while others are static. Entities may also have attributes (properties). An ability is consciously actioned by a player while an attribute occurs or exists automatically.
  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
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