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McCrindle, R. J., & Symons, D. Audio space invaders. Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (8/5/05, 12:53 PM)   
Resource type: Proceedings Article
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 0 7049 11 42 6
BibTeX citation key: McCrindle2000
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Categories: General
Keywords: Auditory Worlds, Sound-only Games
Creators: McCrindle, Symons
Collection: 3<sup>rd</sup> International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies
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Whilst advances are underway in various areas to ease and encourage disabled uptake of new technology, very little emphasis to date has been placed on making the games market accessible to all. The aims of the described work have been twofold. Firstly, to prove that the standard features of a traditional space invader game can be replicated using a 3-D audio (ambisonic) environment. Secondly, through combining audio and visual interfaces with force feedback joystick movement that it is possible to produce a multi-modal game that can be played by both sighted and non-sighted users, thereby enabling them to share the same gaming experience. This paper describes the development and features of the resultant Audio Space Invaders game.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
Description of a shoot 'em up that, while having an optional visual interface, has been designed for sound first to enable the blind to play in addition to the sighted.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
p.64   Some of the results obtained include:

  • "Sounds with a smooth varying pitch were very difficult to locate. It gave the impression that these sounds were moving when they were in fact not."
  • "Sounds that changed could be located as long as the change was quite harsh. A helicopter s propellers or some other sort of machine were easy to locate whereas a sound like siren was not."
  • "With more than two sounds the quieter or less distinguishable sounds became masked and were not easy to hear until objects making the louder sounds were destroyed."
  • "Two or more sounds which were the same or very similar were also difficult to locate, although not impossible."
  • "Too many sources of sound were found to be detrimental to the game."
  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard