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Bussemakers, M. P., & de Haan, A. 1998, November 1–4, Using earcons and icons in categorisation tasks to improve multimedia interfaces. Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Auditory Display. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (2/23/06, 2:18 PM)   
Resource type: Proceedings Article
BibTeX citation key: Bussemakers1998
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Categories: Sound Design
Keywords: Earcons & Auditory Icons
Creators: Bussemakers, de Haan
Collection: 5<sup>th</sup> International Conference on Auditory Display
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In this study, the modality appropriateness hypothesis that originated from experiments in perception is tested for human computer interaction situations. In multimodal information processing users need to integrate the data coming from various sources into one message. In a visual and auditory categorisation task with accessory stimuli in the other modality, containing a mood, it was shown that in tasks where choices need to be made based on the meaning of the stimuli, the visual modality seems more appropriate. From the results can be concluded that users do not always benefit from having information in more than one modality.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
   State that music is "an interpretative co-message" in film and that image and music are automatically blended to produce a "distinct emotional tone."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
   "...processing of auditory information is about 40-60ms faster than the processing of visual information..."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.3   "Earcons are abstract, i.e. not event or object related, musical sounds."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Earcons & Auditory Icons
   Reiterate that the onus is on the perceiver to create a perceptual unity leading to an unequivocal interpretation when presented simultaneous multimodal stimuli (e.g. image and sound).   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard

Unlike Blattner et. al., the authors place the former's 'representational earcons' using recording of sound in an 'auditory icon' class that is distinct to that of earcons (Blattner, Sumikawa, & Greenberg 1989, p.21). For the authors, earcons are purely musical and abstract.

Blattner, M. M., Sumikawa, D. A., & Greenberg, R. M. (1989). Earcons and icons: Their structure and common design principles. Human-computer Interaction, 4, 11–44.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
   Some results:

  • When users are asked to categorise [visual] images, responses are quicker when the image is presented alone than when a simultaneous and corresponding auditory icon or earcon is used.
  • When users were asked to categorise audio images/sounds, having a simultaneous and corresponding visual image speeded up response times.
  Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard