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Warren, W. H., & Verbrugge, R. R. (1984). Auditory perception of breaking and bouncing events: A case study in ecological acoustics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10(5), 704–712. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (8/31/05, 1:32 PM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Warren1984
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Categories: Sound Design
Keywords: Acoustics, Perception, Psychoacoustics
Creators: Verbrugge, Warren
Collection: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
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"The mechanical events of bouncing and breaking are acoustically specified by single versus multiple damped quasi-periodic pulse patterns, with an initial noise burst in the case of breaking. Subjects show high accuracy in categorizing natural tokens of bouncing and breaking glass as well as tokens constructed by adjusting only the temporal patterns of components, leaving their spectral properties constant. Differences in average spectral frequency are, therefore, not necessary for perceiving this contrast, though differences in spectral consistency over successive pulses may be important. Initial noise corresponding to glass rupture appears unnecessary to categorize breaking and bouncing. The data indicate that higher order temporal properties of the acoustic signal provide information for the auditory perception of these events."
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  

Results of experiments showing that humans can distinguish between breaking and bouncing events when heard in isolation (no visual) for either natural or artificially created events (artificial breaking constructed by asynchronously superimposing four audio bouncing patterns). Additionally, it was found that the initial noise burst was not necessary to identify a breaking event.

An early example of ecological acoustics that has been developed by the likes of Gaver for his work on auditory icons (Gaver 1986; 1993b; 1993a).

Gaver, W. W. (1986). Auditory icons: Using sound in computer interfaces. Human-computer Interaction, 2, 167–177.
Gaver, W. W. (1993a). How do we hear in the world? Explorations in ecological acoustics. Ecological Psychology, 5(4), 285–313.
Gaver, W. W. (1993b). What in the world do we hear? An ecological approach to auditory perception. Ecological Psychology, 5(1), 1–29.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard

Reviewing previous work in the field: "These results support the general claim that sound in isolation permits accurate identification of classes of sound-producing events when the temporal structure of the sound is specific to the mechanical activity of the source (Gibson, 1966; Schubert, 1974)."*

Schubert, E.D. (1974) (Gibson 1966). The role of auditory perception in language processing. In D.D. Duane & M.B. Rawson (eds.), Reading, perception, and language (pp.97-130). Baltimore: York Press.

Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard

Quoting Schubert*: "Schubert (1974) put this succinctly in his source identification principle for auditory perception: "Identification of sound sources, and the behavior of those sources, is the primary task of the [auditory] system" (p.126)."

* (Schubert 1975)

Schubert, E. D. (1975). The role of auditory perception in language processing. In D. D. Duane & M. B. Rawson (Eds), Reading, Perception and Language: Papers from the World Congress on Dyslexia (pp. 97–130). Baltimore: York Press.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard