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Wenzel, E. M. (1992). Localization in virtual acoustic displays. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 80–107. 
Added by: sirfragalot (03/10/2006 04:26:40 PM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (02/28/2018 09:15:16 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/pres.1992.1.1.80
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Wenzel1992
View all bibliographic details
Categories: General
Keywords: Acoustics, Immersion, Localization, Presence, Sound objects
Creators: Wenzel
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 5/507
"This paper discusses the development of a particular spatial display medium, the virtual acoustic display. Although the technology can stand alone, it is envisioned ultimately to be a component of a larger multisensory environment and will no doubt find its greatest utility in that context. A general philosophy of the project has been that the development of advanced computer interfaces should be driven first by an understanding of human perceptual requirements, and secondarily by technological capabilities or constraints. In expanding on this view, the paper addresses why virtual acoustic displays are useful, characterizes the abilities of such displays, reviews some recent approaches to their implementation and application, describes the research project at NASA Ames in some detail, and finally outlines some critical research issues for the future."
An overview of work on audio localisation with a description of the author's project in this field. Summary of problems and some potential solutions. An acoustician's point of view.
p.81   Enumerates some useful features of sound:

  1. heard in 3D simultaneously.
  2. tends to produce a state of alertness.
  3. is detected far earlier than a visual signal.

The above aided and abetted by the fact that humans are "extremely sensitive to changes in an acoustic signal over time."   Added by: sirfragalot
p.83   "The combination of veridical spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display that is also quite easy to use."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Earcons & Auditory Icons
p.102   "...the primary difficulties for synthesizing spatial information in virtual acoustic displays will be ensuring reliable elevation discrimination and the elimination or, at least, minimization of reversals."   Added by: sirfragalot
pp.83-87   A survey of the current (1992) state of localization research in acoustics.

Critique of the duplex theory (IID and ITD) and mention of the filtering effect of the pinna in both azimuth and elevation detection when combined with duplex theory.

In-head localisation (IHL) over headphones; listeners fail to externalise sound. Externalisation may be aided by the addition of environmental cues while familiarity with the sound (its frequency specturm) may also help.

Discussion on distance perception -- humans are poor at it.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Headphones Immersion Localization
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