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Williams, S. M. (1994). Perceptual principles in sound grouping. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces (pp. 95–125). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley. 
Added by: sirfragalot (09/15/2005 02:59:35 PM)   
Resource type: Book Article
BibTeX citation key: Williams1994
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Categories: Sound Design
Keywords: Gestalt, perception
Creators: Kramer, Williams
Publisher: Addison-Wesley (Reading MA)
Collection: Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces
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"Essential to the development of a theory of Auditory Display is a thorough understanding of the perception of complex sounds. An introduction to Auditory Grouping principles is presented here, explaining the difference between analytic and synthetic listening and introducing examples of different "gestalt" processes as they apply in the auditory mode. Sound examples are provided to demonstrate each of these examples. This is followed by a brief overview of methods of investigating sound grouping and an outline of modelling methods that have been applied. The STREAMER computational model of perceptual grouping is introduced, together with a brief explanation of some of the experimental methods employed in the acquisition of data to support the development of the model. The chapter concludes with a consideration of the implications of sound grouping for the purposes of Auditory Display."
Added by: sirfragalot  
p.96   "Auditory grouping is the perceptual process by which the listener separates out the information from an acoustic signal into individual meaningful sounds."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   perception
p.97   "...the ideal situation occurs when each source is associated with a stream that represents all the relevant information for the listener to identify the source accurately."   Added by: sirfragalot
p.97   An auditory stream is a perceptual object devised as a result of auditory grouping and "is a perceptual organisation with perceptual attributes that are not just the sum of the percepts of its components but are dependent upon the configuration of that stream. That is, a component such as a pure tone integrated into a simple stream may present a pitch and timbre directly related to its frequency value whereas, when integrated into a complex stream, with other co-occurring tones, it may only add to the perceptual richness of the synchronous tone group percept."   Added by: sirfragalot
p.98   Using gestalt theory to formalise auditory grouping and quoting from Bregman:

"A stream may be defined as a sequence of auditory events whose elements are related perceptually to one another, the stream being segregated perceptually from other co-occurring auditory events ... A source is a physical event. ... A stream, on the other hand, is a psychological organization whose function is to mentally represent acoustic activity of a single source over time+. ... Timbre seems to be a perceptual description of a stream, not an acoustic waveform*."

+ Bregman, A. S. and J. Campbell. "Primary Auditory Stream Segregation and Perception of Order in Rapid Sequences of Tones" in Journal of Experimental Psychology 98(2) (1971) pp.244-249
* Bregman, A. S. and S. Pinker. "Auditory Streaming and the Building of Timbre" in Canadian Journal of Psychology 32 (1978) pp.19-31   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Gestalt
pp.109-110   Provides a definition for sensation, perception and cognition as these (especially the first two) are confusingly and interchangeably used in the literature: "sensation refers to immediate and basic experiences generated by isolated, simple stimuli; perception involves the interpretation of those sensations, giving them meaning and organisation; and cognition involves the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of knowledge."   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Cognition perception Sensation
p.112   "Sounds are allocated to perceptual groups, or streams, depending on their perceived attributes rather than as a direct result of the attributes of the acoustic signal, so the resulting percept may depend on attentional factors or previous training or familiarity with other sounds".   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Gestalt perception
pp.98-99   Identifies two modes of perception required to identify auditory streams. synthetic perception is the process whereby sounds are grouped or streamed together and is more general than analytic perception which is the process whereby individual components of the audio are identified. The two usually work together and the prioritising of one over the other can depend on training (e.g. the ability to hear individual notes in a musical chord).   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   perception
pp.99-109   A long section in which Gestalt principles of visual perception are applied to auditory perception. The examples provided are for musical tones rather than everyday sounds.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Gestalt
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