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Bregman, A. S. (1993). Auditory scene analysis: Hearing in complex environments. In S. McAdams & E. Bigand (Eds), Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition (pp. 10–36). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (9/28/05, 10:43 AM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Resource type: Book Article
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 0-19-852257-6
BibTeX citation key: Bregman1993
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Categories: General
Keywords: Cognition, Gestalt, Listening modes, Perception
Creators: Bigand, Bregman, McAdams
Publisher: Clarendon Press (Oxford)
Collection: Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
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An auditory scene is analogous to a visual scene.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.33   The correct perception of sound "is probably as long as the system is operating in the rich natural environment in which it evolved." Sound in isolation or in anechoic chambers may produce illusions.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Perception
p.33   " is reasonable to conclude that the principles of grouping that were discovered and named by the Gestalt psychologists exist in order to perform the role of scene analysis."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Gestalt
pp.10–11   A useful anaology of a robot attempting to 'perceive' and separate multiple sound sources to illustrate the fact that there is more to the perception of sound than the theories supplied by physics.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Perception
pp.13–14   Describes three methods that humans use to decompose complex sounds into perceptually recognisable units. The first two depend on experienced and learned sound schemas (i.e. memory) that are activated a) automatically (often the case when our name is spoken unexpectedly) or b) voluntarily as part of a voluntary attentive mode of listening (for example when we are listening out for flight announcements in a noisy airport. The third is used to distinguish audio components where there is no familiar schema to use. Bregman terms this primitive auditory scene analysis and it uses acoustic properties rather than familiar schemas.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
pp.14–15   Humans exploit acoustic regularity in order to analyse and synthesis the auditory scene into different perceptual units.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Perception
pp.15–30   A long section in which several rules are supplied for primitive auditory scene analysis based on the detection of frequency, temporal and intensity regularity.

1. "Unrelated sounds seldom start or stop exactly at the same time." p.17

2. "Gradualness of change. a) A single sound tends to change its properties smoothly and slowly. b) A sequence of sounds from the same source tends to change its properties slowly." p.18

3. "When a body vibrates with a repetitive period, its vibrations give rise to an acoustic pattern in which the frequency components are multiples of a common fundamental." p.27

4. "Many changes that take place in an acoustic event will affect all the components of the resulting sound in the same way and at the same time." p.28   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Perception
pp.26–27   Suggests that humans do "not give absolute priority to the spatial cue" p.26 when separating sound in the audio scene because of the ability of sound to bend around corners, be attenuated by objects or to be reflected off objects. None of these affect the sound's fundamental frequency or add frequencies to the sound so it is reasonable to assume that frequency (as detected by the filtering effect of the pinnae) is a more reliable method of localisation.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Learning Localization
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