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Edworthy, J., Loxley, S., & Dennis, I. (1991). Improving auditory warning design: Relationship between warning sound parameters and perceived urgency. Human Factors, 33(2), 205–231. 
Added by: sirfragalot (09/28/2005 09:28:05 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (06/11/2021 06:30:49 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
BibTeX citation key: Edworthy1991
View all bibliographic details
Categories: Sound Design
Keywords: Alarms, Fear, perception
Creators: Dennis, Edworthy, Loxley
Collection: Human Factors
Resources citing this (Bibliography: WIKINDX Master Bibliography)
Views: 7/578
"This paper presents an experimental study of the effects of individual sound parameters on perceived (psychoacoustic) urgency. Experimental Series 1 showed that fundamental frequency, harmonic series, amplitude envelope shape, and delayed harmonics all have clear and consistent effects on perceived urgency. Experimental Series 2 showed that temporal and melodic parameters such as speed, rhythm, pitch range, and melodic structure also have clear and consistent effects on perceived urgency. The final experiment tested a set of 13 auditory warnings generated by an application of the earlier experimental findings. The urgency rank ordering of this set was predicted, and the correlation between the predicted and obtained order was highly significant. The results of these experiments have a widespread application in the improvement of existing auditory warning systems and the design of new systems, where the psychoacoustic and psychological appropriateness of warnings could be enhanced."
How to encode 'perceived urgency' in sound.
p.221   Some results affecting perceived urgency and related to c.2sec sound bursts comprising c.200ms pulses include: a) pulses with a fast 20ms onset and offset are perceived to be more urgent; b) pulses with short onset and long offset are less urgent than those with long onset and short offset and c) the more random the harmonic series the greater the perceived urgency. A possible explanation for b) is that long onset and short offset amplitude envelopes are typical of approaching objects while short onset and long offset envelopes are typical of receding objects.

(from Ballas (1994))

Ballas, J. A. (1994). Delivery of information through sound. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces (pp. 79–94). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.   Added by: sirfragalot
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