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Warren, D. H., Welch, R. B., & McCarthy, T. J. (1981). The role of visual-auditory "compellingness" in the ventriloquism effect: Implications for transitivity among the spatial senses. Perception & Psychophysics, 30(6), 557–564. 
Added by: sirfragalot (09/28/2005 11:04:28 AM)   Last edited by: sirfragalot (08/26/2015 08:42:49 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Warren1981
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Categories: General
Keywords: Acousmatic sound, Cross-modality, perception, Synchresis/Synchrony
Creators: McCarthy, Warren, Welch
Collection: Perception & Psychophysics
Views: 2/632
"A magnitude estimation response procedure was used to evaluate the strength of visual-auditory intersensory bias effects under conditions of spatial discrepancy. Major variables were the cognitive compellingness of the stimulus situation and instructions as to the unity or duality of the perceptual event. With a highly compelling stimulus situation and single-event instructions, subjects showed a very high visual bias of audition, a significant auditory bias of vision, and a sum of bias effects that indicated that their perception was fully consonant with the assumption of a single perceptual event. This finding reopens the possibility that the spatial modalities function as a transitive system, an outcome that Pick, Warren, and Hay (1969) had expected but did not obtain. Furthermore, the results support the model for intersensory interaction proposed by Welch and Warren (1980) with respect to the susceptability of intersensory bias effects to several independent variables. Finally, a new means of assessing intersensory bias effects by the use of spatial separation threshold was demonstrated."
What is termed the 'ventriloquism effect' is Chion's (1994) synchresis and Anderson's (1996) synchrony.

Anderson, J. D. (1996). The reality of illusion: An ecological approach to cognitive film theory. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.
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