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Breinbjerg, M. (2005). The aesthetic experience of sound: Staging of auditory spaces in 3D computer games. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (7/19/06, 3:50 PM)   
Resource type: Web Article
BibTeX citation key: Breinbjerg2005
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Categories: Semiology, Sound Design
Keywords: Acoustic ecology, First Person Shooters
Creators: Breinbjerg
Views: 7/916
"The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games."
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  
Briefly applies ecological acoustics to Half-life 2.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.2   "...sound enhances the visual space and the form of our ears and the distance between them, enables us to position the sounding object quite precisely in that space"   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Aural Imagery Visual Space
p.3   "In our natural way of listening sound is indexical. It points to the fact that a given event is taking place. Sound occurs only when materials interact... The interaction is to be understood as a source-cause relation... in which a sounding system (the source) resonates as a consequence of a given action (the cause), like when a hammer hits a bell."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Indexicality
p.3   "Adopting an ecological approach to auditory perception [in the game is a means to understanding] our natural way of listening"   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Acoustic ecology
p.4   "The sense of distance is related to the amplitude of the sound; since a sound becomes louder the closer it is to the ear. The experience of distance is also related to the distribution of energy in the spectrum of the sound. High frequencies loose energy faster than low frequencies."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
p.6   "But sound is not just indicative to the space and the actions taking place. Part of its aesthetic value is reserved a more connotative power. Sound evokes memories and provokes images and brings about strong emotional experiences, also when it does not make the world more readable, but rather ambiguous and opaque." [sic]   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Aural Imagery
p.3   Suggests that, although every sound informs us about the salient features of the source-cause event, we are not necessarily able to confirm precisely the nature of the source other than its rough features.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Veridicality
pp.3–5   Outlines three dimensions of space constructed by sound that the gamer (in Half-life 2) experiences:

1. Architectural space In a closed space, this is defined by the construction, dimensions and materials used and is a quantitative phenomenon. Since architecture itself does not produce sound, this space needs to be signalled by some sound source (such as footsteps, dripping water).

2. Relational space This is defined by distance and position of sound sources relative to the listener and is subjective and non-quantifiable because each listener has her own relational space, and is dynamic, especially when sound sources and listener move in relation to each other.

3. Space as place The genius loci that signifies what type of space it is or what function it has. e.g. traffic indicates urban space.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Virtual environment
p.4   States that localization of sound is achieved through time delays between sound arriving at the ears combined with some filtering of sound by the head.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Localization
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