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Lindley, C. A. (2005). The semiotics of time structure in ludic space as a foundation for analysis and design. Game Studies, 5(1). Retrieved March 22, 2006, from 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (3/22/06, 4:10 PM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Resource type: Web Article
BibTeX citation key: Lindley2005
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Categories: Game Design
Keywords: Narrative, Semiotics, Time
Creators: Lindley
Collection: Game Studies
Views: 16/991
The concept of a ludic systems encompasses a family of media forms and experiences involving elements of simulation, game play and narrative or story construction. These three elements can be regarded as different classes of semiotic systems, or systems of meaning, having their own structuring principles and methods of informing experience. For any particular ludic system, such as a computer game, time structure can be considered in terms of a number of distinct layers of meaning analogous to the levels of encoding identified in structuralist narrative theory: a generation level, a simulation level, a performance level and a discourse level. The simulation, performance and discourse levels correspond to the semiotic domains of simulations, games and narratives. For any specific ludic system, the overall design approach relating to how the designer intends the players’ experience to be structured, as the core of interactive engagement and immersion, can be based upon emphasizing one of these three primary forms, or integrating more than one form by various strategies. Adopting a structural semiotic approach to modeling these layers of meaning provides a foundation for more clearly integrating design choices within a coherent overall concept, as well as laying the foundations for a more systematic study of possible correlations between design features and player affects.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
   Defines three temporal semiotic levels in games:

1. Simulation: the functional characteristics of the game. time frames, quantization, ticks per cycles etc. At the level of the game design(er).

2. Ludic or Game: patterns of player movements, player engagement with the game rules. Turns, tournaments etc. At the level of the player.

3. Narrative: Based upon the three-act restorative structure. Often, especially in action games, the second act (conflict) is the most extended with the first act (beginning) and third act (resolution) often being limited to cut scenes, FMV, display of final scores etc.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Semiotics Time