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Gonot, A., Natkin, S., Emerit, M., & Chateau, N. (2007). The roles of spatial auditory perception and cognition in the accessibility of a game map with a first person view. International Journal of Intelligent Games & Simulation, 4(2). Retrieved December 31, 2007, from http://ijigs.scit.wlv.ac.uk/AGonot.pdf 
Added by: sirfragalot (12/31/2007 05:44:25 AM)   
Resource type: Web Article
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1477-2043
BibTeX citation key: Gonot2007
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Categories: Sound Design
Keywords: Navigation, Virtual environment
Creators: Chateau, Emerit, Gonot, Natkin
Collection: International Journal of Intelligent Games & Simulation
Views: 2/473
Abstract
The aim of this experiment is to assess to which extend a spatial auditory display can enhance the accessibility of game map with a first person view. Forty subjects had to find nine sound sources in a virtual town, navigating by using specialized auditory cues that were delivered differently in four conditions: by a binaural versus a stereophonic (through headphones) combined by a contextualized versus decontextualized beacons. Adecontextualized beacon uses a sound indicating the azimuth of a target while a contextualized beacon uses a sound indicating the shortest path toward the target. Behavioral data, auto-evaluation of cognitive load and subjective-impression data collected via a questionnaire were recorded. As was expected, using binaural or contextualized beacons improve the orientation task by enhancing the performance of dynamic localization and correlatively reduce player's workload. However, contextualized beacons (using either binaural or stereophonic rendering) was not as relevant as expected for navigation itself, failing to reduce the reliance on physical space.
Added by: sirfragalot  
Notes
See the earlier (Gonot, Natkin, Emerit, & Chateau 2006) from which much of this paper has been cut 'n' pasted without being referenced. Both are from the same conference series...

Gonot, A., Natkin, S., Emerit, M., & Chateau, N. 2006, November 22—24 An experiment in the perception of space through sound in virtual world and games. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Computer Games: Artificial Intelligence and Mobile Systems, Dublin Institute of Technology.
Added by: sirfragalot  Last edited by: sirfragalot
Paraphrases
p.24   The authors refer to the creation of a cognitive map within the player's mind used as an aid to navigation and formed through a learning experience. This is called a visual map by Passini.

Passini, R. 1992. "Wayfinding in Architecture". New York: van Nostrand Reinhold.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Navigation
pp.28-29   The authors define two types of audio beacons used for navigating in virtual worlds.

A decontextualized audio beacon has an 'as the crow flies' route (the shortest path) from target to listener/player and so ignores walls and other natural sound barriers. Earlier game engines led to this type of beacon because of their inability to allow game audio to interact with the game's physical spaces.

A contextualized audio beacon accounts for physical sound barriers in the game world and so appears in later, more sophisticated game engines.

Because decontextualized audio beacons do not take account of the game's physical spaces and objects, they do not contribute to the formation of the visual map. A contextualized beacon does but, because it requires concentration to follow the path of the beacon, it imposes a greater cognitive load.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Audio beacon
pp.37-38   The experiments comparing decontextualized and contextualized beacons for navigational effectiveness and efficiency proved inconclusive in the main. In neither case is the mental visual map improved through the use of such beacons -- possibly because the spatializing abilities of the human auditory system have been overestimated.   Added by: sirfragalot
Keywords:   Audio beacon
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