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Shilling, R., Zyda, M., & Wardynski, E. C. 2002, November 30, Introducing emotion into military simulation and videogame design: America’s Army: Operations and VIRTE. Paper presented at GameOn, London. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (5/15/08, 11:36 AM)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (12/19/10, 6:19 AM)
Resource type: Proceedings Article
Peer reviewed
BibTeX citation key: Shilling2002
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Categories: Sound Design
Keywords: Emotion, First Person Shooters, Immersion
Creators: Shilling, Wardynski, Zyda
Publisher: GameOn (London)
Collection: GameOn
Views: 19/1743
Emotion is a key component for sound design in movies and videogames. We believe that it is also a key component in virtual environments and simulation. The following paper summarizes work at the MOVES Institute's Immersive Audio Laboratory which demonstrates the emotional impact of sound in interactive media and also shows that emotionality evoked in a simulation has a positive impact on learning for events that occur in the simulation. Our research methods employ objective measures such as physiological recordings and memory recall testing rather than the more commonly used subjective questionnaires and surveys. It is our belief that these objective measures are more easily replicated and generalized to a wide variety of simulations and situations. We discuss our research in terms of the parallel development in the MOVES Institute of the videogame "America's Army: Operations," which we use as an experimental test bed and tool. Applications of this research are discussed in terms of high-end simulation projects like the Virtual Technologies and Environments (VIRTE) program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Sets out to use objective measures for determining, among other things, emotion and immersion in virtual environments as brought about by sound. The authors argue that emotional arousal has a positive impact on immersion in virtual environments but offer no evidence for this. The experimental research detailed here provides evidence that the use of sound in VEs increases physiological and therefore emotional arousal but they do not extrapolate this to increased player immersion. It is left to the reader to infer that the use of sound in VEs enhances immersion because of the authors' contention that increased emotional arousal = increased immersion.
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
   "[...] emotional arousal has a positive impact on learning, performance, and sense of immersion in virtual environments."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Emotion Immersion
   "A flat recording is not only emotionally flat; it also sounds unrealistic
(Yewdall, 1999). Instead, flat recordings [in AA:O] were mixed with other explosive sounds to compensate for the weaknesses of the reproduction media."

Yewdall, D. (1999). Practical Art of Motion Picture Sound. Boston, MA: Focal Press.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Perception Realism Sound Recording
   "Within the limitations of the game engine, if you see an action on the screen, you hear a corresponding sound. These details are crucial for immersing a player in the scene."   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Immersion
   "Results indicated increased physiological responses on all measures in the sound versus no sound condition" and the authors use this to argue that "the audio component of a videogame or simulation contributes significantly to the emotional response of the participants".   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Emotion

The authors refer to the audience for Saving Private Ryan as being immersed in the sound field -- i.e. physically immersed (Spielberg 1998).

Spielberg, S. (Director) (1998). Saving private Ryan [Film]. S. Spielberg, M. Gordon, G. Levinsohn & I. Bryce (Producers). USA: Dreamworks SKG.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Immersion
   Collecting Temperature, Electro Dermal Response (EDR), the data showed that, when comparing headphones and speakers, there was only a temperature rise in the latter use. The authors argue that this is not a convincing argument for speaker use over headphone use.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard
Keywords:   Headphones