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MacDorman, K. F. (2006). Subjective ratings of robot video clips for human likeness, familiarity, and eeriness: An exploration of the Uncanny Valley. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from ... 06SubjectiveRatings.pdf 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard (5/15/09, 9:44 AM)   
Resource type: Web Article
BibTeX citation key: MacDorman2006
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Categories: General
Keywords: Emotion, Uncanny
Creators: MacDorman
Views: 11/772
"Masahiro Mori observed that as robots come to look more humanlike, they seem more familiar, until a point is reached at which subtle deviations from human norms cause them to look creepy. He referred to this dip in familiarity and corresponding surge in strangeness as the uncanny valley. The eerie sensation associated with a mismatch between human expectations and a robot's behavior provides a useful source of feedback to improve the cognitive models implemented in the robot. Is the uncanny valley a necessary property of near-humanlike forms? This paper contributes to ongoing work in understanding the nature and causes of the uncanny valley by means of an experiment: 56 participants were asked to rate 13 robots and 1 human, shown in video clips, on a very mechanical (1) to very humanlike (9) scale, a very strange (1) to very familiar (9) scale, and a not eerie (0) to extremely eerie (10) scale. Contrary to earlier studies with morphs [MacDorman and Ishiguro, 2006], plots of average and median values for ratings on these scales do not reveal a single U-shaped valley as predicted by Mori's uncanny valley hypothesis [1970], although his hypothesis allows for some variation owing to movement. Robots rated similarly on the mechanical versus humanlike scale can be rated quite differently on the strange versus familiar or the eeriness scales. The results indicate that the perceived human likeness of a robot is not the only factor determining the perceived familiarity, strangeness, or eeriness of the robot. This suggests that other factors could be manipulated to vary the familiarity, strangeness, or eeriness of a robot independently of its human likeness."
Added by: Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard